Posted: March 18th, 2023
University Curriculum in Flux
Over the last 800-900 years, the idea of an advanced education has undergone a great deal of dramatic evolution. From the 11th century, when universities began in the larger cities of Italy, France and England; to the modern “electronic” and distance programs of the contemporary world. The differences, in fact, are so vast; it would be unlikely that a Medieval scholar would even recognize the modern curriculum or campus. From focus, course offerings, prerequisites, mode and style of learning, to campus activities, expectations and grades — all remain fluid and ever responsive to modern socio-cultural trends.
Universities in the Medieval and Renaissance eras were based on religious organizations and curriculum. They arose out of a burgeoning need for a more professionalized clergy, and in an era in which literacy was a gift not a given, a male who could interpret the Bible and Papal Doctrine for the masses. Education was a luxury, and only those wealthy or lucky could partake. Of course, this required fluency in both their native tongue and Latin, as well as a strong sense of religiosity (Cobban, intro).
One early difference in the university establishment was the method at which instructors were found and paid: in Italy, the students hired and paid the teachers, so professors were more consultants; in France all instructions was regulated and paid for by the Church; and in England, the Crown and Parliament paid for education, allowing a greater secularization in both England and Italy that was clearly not the case in France. The Italian system, however, placed the instructor at an adversarial disadvantage, and typically was focused upon law. Therefore, for much of the Medieval and Renaissance period, until more northern cities established university systems, a Paris education was considered the most rigorous and professional (De Ridder-Symonens).
The ten major differences between the Medieval/Renaissance University and matriculation into college, in fact, were: gender, availability, language, curriculum focus, study/work expectation, finances, instruction/tutorial, testing/exams, overall function in society, and post-graduation expectations. These are outlined in Table 1.
Males only, students and faculty
Male dominated until late 19th, early 20th century
For only the very wealthy or those with a patron or scholarship
Post-World War II available to the masses
Most courses taught in Latin; classical languages emphasized for educated classes
With the exception of foreign languages; typically taught in the vernacular of the locale
Religion or Law’ Bachelor’s took six years, and 12 additional for MA or PhD; students often started at 14, though, so were middle aged when graduated.
Multidimensional; including cross-disciplinary and societal-based studies (e.g. gender studies, etc.)
School was full time, students expected to live on stipend and spend time studying, attending lectures, reading, and discussing ideas. Classes began at dawn, 5-6am; lased at least 10 hours per day.
For many, past-High School education is a right of passage toward adulthood; rarely do American students not work and go to school; those that attend Oxford, etc. have different expectations. Coursework divided into quarters or semesters by hours assigned per course.
Based very individually — but no public or formalized financial aid.
Post-World War II, GI Bill, student loans, grants, and other government and non-government subsidized and unsubsidized loans. Most recently, accounts set up during infancy to pay for college.
Instruction based on classics; typically courses offered based on books, not on subject or theme and not elective. Once a book, say
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!
Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.