Posted: March 18th, 2023

Stopping of Female genital mutilation review

Female genital mutilation should be stopped

Female Genital Mutilation or FGM can be explained as a procedure that is performed or inflicted on women and girls in some developing countries (Klein et al., 2018). FGM entails the altering or cutting of female genitalia. There are many known consequences of inflicting FGM on women including viral and bacterial infections, psychological problems, and obstetrical complications. The FGM topic has been taken up by activists in areas where the practice is rampant. The FGM topic has fundamental societal importance, cultural, significance, and ramifications. In this informative piece, the implications and consequences of FGM are discussed. There have been many efforts put in place to eradicate the FGM vice although certain societal and cultural dynamics have allowed FGM to be deeply rooted in some regions. It is important for more interventions to be instituted in the communities where FGM is practiced as a ritual in order to have realistic chances of eradicating this practice. Concerted efforts are necessary for the purpose of developing programs and studies that increase the level of awareness on the consequences of FGM.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Stopping of Female genital mutilation review
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

Female circumcision is the practice of manipulating, removing or altering the exterior genitalia of women and young girls (Klein et al., 2018). FGM is conducted using some sharp object like a blade or glass by some unskilled town, religious, or traditional leader. In some instances medical professionals conducted FGM. FGM is quite different from male circumcision in that it unlike male circumcision that has real health benefits female circumcision has no known medical benefits (Kandala & Komba, 2018). It is widely agreed upon that FGM violates the human rights of the victims and increases the health complications of the person on whom it is inflicted (Kandala & Komba, 2018). According to the World Health Organization, FGM intentionally causes injury to the genital organs of the female without any medical reason (WHO, 2018). There are no health benefits associated with the FGM procedure. FGM procedure can result in serious urinating problems, bleeding, infections, later cysts, and childbirth complications. FGM also increases the possibility of infant mortality (WHO, 2018). If indeed it has been proven that FGM is a vice that must be destroyed in the modern day world why is it that it still persists?

There are many cultural practices in the developing world that have been retained to this day. Some of these cultures include FGM and other torturous activities all done in the name of rites of passage. Some of the rituals have no health implication although FGM is one of those backward and retrogressive cultures that the society must be trained to abandon. Surprisingly some underage girls have been indoctrinated into accepting these retrogressive cultures. There is news of young girls who leave school to get married to elderly men. Some girls go through FGM willingly. Others abandon their education for marriage life without cognizance of the repercussions involved. The vicious cycle of FGM and early marriage makes high infant mortality, FGM related diseases, and infections, and poverty inevitable. This is why society must be enlightened on the need to abandon some of these retrogressive and dangerous self-inflicted cultures.

The World Health Organization statistics indicate that an excess of 200 million women and girls living today have undergone FGM in thirty African countries, Asia, and the Middle East (WHO, 2018). Furthermore, FGM has been found to be commonly inflicted on children and young girls ranging from infancy to 15 years of age (WHO, 2018). This is a violation of women rights and human rights as well. The people who perform FGM have influential roles in the communities they come from. Traditional circumcisers use unorthodox methods to conduct the procedure such as using the same knife or blade on many girls hence risking their health with infections and terminal illnesses. Healthcare professionals may be involved in FGM due to unfounded beliefs that medical FGM procedure is safer. According to the recommendation from the World Health Organization, health professionals are strongly advised against conducting any FGM procedures (WHO, 2018). If there is a universal consensus from the World Health Organization that FGM is wrong why is the retrogressive practice still persistent?

FGM is widely recognized as an illegal practice that violates human rights and the rights or women and young girls (WHO, 2018). It is a reflection of the in-depth inequality and discrimination of sexes. FGM is a depiction of extreme discrimination perpetrated against women but yet it persists in this modern day. FGM violates the rights of women and girls to their physical integrity, security, health, freedom from cruelty, torture, degrading and inhumane treatment. FGM violates the victims living rights when the FGM procedure leads to their death. FGM experiences exacerbate the short term and long term health consequences for girls and women affected by the vice. It is unacceptable from the health and human rights perspective. With FGM the risk of adverse health outcomes increases FGM severity. The world health organization opposes any form of FGM (WHO, 2019). The organization is also resolute in its opposition to this practice among healthcare providers. FGM, according to WHO should not and must not be done even medically (medicalization of FGM is against WHO resolution).

Some of the short term FGM health risks include the following.

Excessive Bleeding: IF the clitoral artery or another blood vessel suffers a cut then the FGM procedure may result in hemorrhage (WHO, 2019).

Severe Pain: The mutilation of the sensitive tissue in the genitals and the never endings can result in extreme pain (WHO, 2019). Owing to the fact that most FGM procedures are conducted illegally anesthesia is seldom used and if used, it is not effective. The process of healing is torturous due to the excessive pain involved. FGM type III involves extensive mutilation procedures that take longer to heal hence making the duration and intensity of pain extreme (WHO, 2019).

Swelling of genital tissue: Owing to the local infection or inflammatory response involved the genitals may swell resulting in discomfort and pain (WHO, 2019).

Shock: This can be occasioned by the hemorrhage, infection or pain.

Infections: The use of unsterilized equipment can result in contamination. Some traditional circumcisers use the exact instruments on many genital mutilation procedures. The infection can continue to the healing period and cause further irreparable complications (WHO, 2019).

HIV: The link between HIV and FGM is unconfirmed although genital mutilation using the same instruments in the absence of sterilization is likely to increase the chances of HIV transmission among the women and girls who undergo FGM together (WHO, 2019).

Some of the short-term risks of female genital mutilation include urination problems including urinary retention and pain when passing urine, impaired healing of wounds, psychological consequences, and death. The shock, pain, and physical force employed during FGM makes the procedure a traumatic experience that can result in psychological problems. Some the infections sustained during FGM including hemorrhage and tetanus are likely to cause shock and death.

There are also health risks that can be sustained long-term as a result of FGM. Some of these perpetual FGM consequences include pain, infections, extended pain when urinating, menstrual problems, keloids, HIV, impairment of sexual health, obstetric complication, obstetric fistula, perinatal risks, and psychological consequences (WHO, 2019). Menstrual problems come from obstruction of virginal passage and this is likely to cause pain during menstruation a condition known as dysmenorrhea (WHO, 2019). FGM can also cause problems with passage of menstrual blood and irregular menses especially in FGM type III (WHO, 2019). Keloids involve the formation of excessive scar tissues where the cut is inflicted (WHO, 2019). FGM damages the genital tissues that are highly sensitive, more so the clitoris (RC & V, 2014). This impacts on sexual sensitivity of the woman and hence results into sexual problems like diminished sexual pleasure and desire, pain while having sex, the difficulty experienced during penetration, the absence of an orgasm (a condition known as anorgasmia), and reduced lubrication when having intercourse (RC & V, 2014). The trauma associated with the memories of FGM, the pain, and the formation of scar tissue can cause sexual problems in future (RC & V, 2014). Obstetric complications may cause difficulties when undergoing child labor, increase cesarean section risks, cause postpartum hemorrhage, and obstetric lacerations (WHO, 2019). FGM is also directly associated with obstetric fistula although the association is not established yet.

In conclusion, the psychological consequences of FGM can cause terminal post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety disorders (WHO, 2019). Some societies still hold on to the cultural relevance of FGM without paying regard to the psychological complications involved in the procedure. Researchers like Julios (2018) have proposed an intensive social media awareness campaign against FGM. The only way FGM can be conquered is through an intensive online and government-sponsored campaign against the retrogressive and demeaning procedure. FGM discriminates against the sanctity of the female body and perpetuates dishonor and abuse of women rights. Women all over the world should stand up for their peers who suffer under the disguise of generational traditions and cultures that steal the dignity of their fellow women. In this day and age FGM should not be even a concern. It has been proven that the practice has no health benefits, unlike male circumcision. There should be global standard and national laws against FGM. Anyone caught practices FGM should be held in contempt and subjected to jail time.












Julios, C. (2018). Female genital mutilation and social media. London: Routledge

Kandala, N.-B., & Komba, P. N. (2018). Female Genital Mutilation around The World: Analysis of Medical Aspects, Law and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Klein, E., Helzner, E., Shayowitz, M., Kohlhoff, S., & Smith-Norowitz, T. A. (2018). Female Genital Mutilation: Health Consequences and Complications – A Short Literature Review. Obstetrics and Gynecology International. Hindawi Limited.

RC, B., & V, U. (2014). Immediate Health Consequences of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C). Place of publication not identified: Knowledge Centre for the Health Services at The Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH.

WHO. (2019). Health risks of female genital mutilation (FGM), Sexual and Reproductive Health. Retrieved 27 February, 2019 from

WHO. (2018). Female genital mutilation, World Health Organization. Retrieved 27 February, 2019 from

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.