Posted: May 24th, 2022
Respiratory Pathophysiology and Pharmacology Case Study
Description of Case
The study in question was conducted to determine the mechanisms by which inhaled ultrafine particles are further translated to other areas of the body. The researchers related that “Within hours after the respiratory system is exposed to UFPs, the UFPs may appear in many compartments of the body, including the liver, heart, and nervous system” (Geiser, et al., 2005). Since the means by which the particles are distributed is not entirely understood, the researchers determined to discover the specific pathways that particles take after they leave the lungs. Animal subjects (namely laboratory rats) were used to conduct the study.
Outline of Mechanisms
The authors studied a variety of mechanisms that could be responsible for the subsequent translation, among which possibilities were endocytosis (Morishita & Engebrecht, 2005) and simple migration of the particles across the wall of the cell (which has been seen in other studies (Delfino, Sioutas, & Malik, 2005). The authors found that no cell process, such as endocytosis, was involved. The porosity of the cell wall and the subcellular nature of the particles were used as a partial explanation of the migration. Thus, the mechanism was said to be entirely physiologically related. No chemical reaction or damage was related to the translation.
Critical Evaluation of Mechanisms
The primary critique that can be developed in this type of experimentation is whether it is efficacious to relate an animal study to one conducted with animals. This particular study was backed by previous human studies which showed the migration of particles, but not the particular mechanism that caused the migration. Also, there have been many studies which have looked into how animal studies can translate to human subjects. One in particular done by Sena, et al. (2010), related that there have been many problems when trying to predict the effectiveness of animal studies when they are translated to humans, but in the case of this study it was deemed to be appropriate. Primarily because the invasive mechanism used would not be appropriate for humans, and the particular cellular mechanisms being studied were common to rat and human cells. In the case of this study the mechanisms used in the study were complete and reliable.
In a world in which air pollution is said to cause multiple adverse effects within the human organism, it is necessary for health professionals to understand the truth behind the claims. It is necessary that health professionals educate themselves with regard to scientific studies conducted in such matters, so that they can adequately educate patients and general members of the public. This study shows that there is basically no way for the lungs to stop the advance of ultrafine particles from lung tissue to liver, cardiac and nervous tissue; and some of these particles can be very damaging.
Delfino, R.J., Sioutas, C., & Malik, S. (2005). Potential role of ultrafine particles in associations between ultrafine particle mass and cardiovascular health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(8), 934-952.
Geiser, M., Rothen-Rutishauser, B., Kapp, N., Schurch, S., Kreyling, W., Schulz, H., Semmler, M., Hof, V.I., Heyder, J., & Peter, G., 2005. Ultrafine particles cross cellular membranes by nonphagocytic mechanisms in lungs and in cultured cells. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(11), pp. 1555-1565.
Morishita, M., & Engebrecht, G. (2005). End3p-mediated endocytosis is required for spore wall formation in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Genetics, 170(4), 1561-1565.
Sena, E.S., van der Worp, H.B., Bath, P.M.W., Howells, D.W., & Macleod, M.R., 2010. Publication bias in reports of animal stroke studies leads to major overstatement of efficacy. PLoS Biology, 8(3).
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!
Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.