Posted: May 24th, 2022

Purpose of implementing a Case Study Approach

Deploying a Pilot Case Study Within a Research Project

Theoretical Approach to Research Study and its methodologies

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Purpose of implementing a Case Study Approach
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

The Purpose of implementing a Case Study Approach

Yin’s Approach to Case Study Research

Creswell’s Approach to Research Design

George and Bennett Theory Development in Social Science

Breadth References



The work of Robert K. Yin (2004) entitled: “Case Study Methods” states that the case study method has attained routine status as a viable method for doing education research. Other methods include but are not limited to surveys, ethnographies, experiments, quasi-experiments, economic and statistical modeling, hostires, research sytheses and developmental methods.” According to Yin, case study research enables the researcher to “investigate important topics not easily covered by other methods. Conversely, other methods cover many topics better than does case study research. The overall idea is that different research methods serve complementary functions.” (2004; p.1) Yin relates that the reasons for application of the case study method are:

1) The case study method is pertinent when your research addresses either a descriptive question (what happened?) or an explanatory question (how or why did something happen?);

2) When illumination of a particular situation to get a close understanding of it. (2004) The case study method allowed the researcher to make direct observations and collect data in natural settings, compared to relying on ‘derived’ data.” (Yin, 2004; p.3)

Yin states that: “A key demand of the case study method is the investigator’s skill and expertise at pursuing an entire and sometimes subtle line of inquiry at the same time as (and not after) data are being collected.” (2004; p.3) Yin states that the basic step in beginning a case study is defining the case that is being studied which is a great help in organization of the case study. Yin states that the virtue of the case study is the ability to “redefine the ‘case’ after collecting some early data.” (2004; p.3) Yin relates that it is likely the researcher will have to “backtrack, reviewing a slightly different literature and possibly revising the original research questions. A second step calls for deciding whether to do a single case study or a set of case studies. The term “case study” can refer to either single- or multiple-case studies. They represent two types of case study designs. You also can choose to keep your case holistic or to have embedded sub-cases within an overall holistic case. For example, your holistic case might be about why a school system had implemented certain student promotion policies, and the system’s classrooms could serve as embedded “sub-cases” from which you also collect data. Holistic or embedded case studies represent another two types of case study design, which can exist with either single- or multiple-case studies — so that you should think of the two-by-two combination producing four basic designs for case studies. Of these combinations, the most intriguing are the ones contrasting single- and multiple-case studies. Focusing on a single case will force you to devote careful attention to that case. However, having multiple cases might help you to strengthen the findings from your entire study.” (Yin, 2004; p.4)

Another step in the case study involves “whether or not to sue theory development to:

1) Select the cases(s);

2) Develop the data protocol; and 3) Organize the initial data analysis strategies. (Yin, 2004; p.4)

The six steps that Yin proposes should be used for research include:

Determining and defining the research questions;

Selecting the cases and determining data-gathering and analysis techniques;

Preparation to collect the data;

Collection of data;

Evaluation and analysis of the data; and Preparation of the report. (2002)

Yin relates that in the case of the inexperienced researcher “the less experience…in doing case studies” the more likely it is that the researcher “might want to adopt some theoretical perspectives.” (2004; p.5) The reason stated by Yin is that without the theoretical perspectives and ‘without adequate prior experience” the researcher might have difficulty in convincing others that the findings of the case study are of value to the field of study. In contrast, the more experienced researcher might avoid the adoption of theoretical perspectives in an attempt to “produce a ‘break the mold’ case study.” (Yin, 2004) Yin states that “A good case study design, at a minimum involves: defining your case, justifying your choice of a single- or multiple-case study, and deliberately adopting or minimizing theoretical perspectives.” (2004; p.5)

Yin states that a necessity exists for ‘formal screening’ in case studies and that useful screening criteria include:

1) The willingness of key persons in the case to participate in the study;

2) The likely richness of the available data; and 3) Preliminary evidence that the case has had the experience or situation that you are seeking to study…even if the case is to be a typical case.” (2004; p.6)

Yin states that the “case selection or screening goal is to avoid the scenario whereby, after having started the actual case study, the selected case turns out not to be viable or to represent an instance of something other than what you had intended to study.” (2004; p.6) The ‘common sources of evidence’ in doing case studies are stated by Yin (2004) to include:

1) Documents (e.g., newspaper articles, letters and e-mails, and reports);

2) Archival records (e.g., student records);

3) Interviews (e.g., open-ended conversations with key informants);

4) Direct Observations (e.g., observations of classroom behavior);

5) Participant-Observation (e.g., being identified as a researcher but also filling a real-life role in the scene being studied); and 6) Physical Artifacts (e.g., computer printouts of students’ work) (Yin, 2004; p. 7)

Yin states that the researcher might “use focus groups and other sources besides these six.” (2004; p.8) The primary concern is that not only one of the sources be used for gathering data because “in collecting case study, the main idea is to ‘triangulate’ or establish converging lines of evidence to make your findings as robust as possible.” (2004; p. 9) The most hoped for convergence in case study triangulation occurs “when two or more independent sources all point to the same set of events or ‘facts’.” (Yin, 2004; p.10) Yin relates that some researchers, whether by preference or experience “can only deal comfortably with a single type of evidence – e.g. interviews. Such persons may give too much weight to what they hear others saying…” And as a result is not able to be thorough in their search for other evidence that is relevant…” (Yin, 2004; p.11)

Case study data may be of both a qualitative and quantitative nature with qualitative data being “non-numeric data” and qualitative data being “numeric data” with both of these data types being “highly complex, demanding analytic techniques…” (Yin, 2004; p.12) According to Yin, the conduction of the case study should “…follow the classic way of presenting evidence: arraying data through tables, charts, figures, other exhibits (even pictures), and vignettes. Footnotes, quotations from interviews, chronologies and narrative questions-and-answers also are suitable — as long as these are set apart from your interpretive narrative. Whatever the way of presenting the data, the structure or format of the array needs to reflect an overarching concern for presenting data fairly. A brief description of how the evidence was collected, including use of a formal data collection tool (case study protocol), also is helpful.” (2004; p. 13)

Yin relates that: “Case studies should present their data formally and explicitly, in a variety of data arrays set apart from the case study narrative.” (2004; p. 13) Yin relates that in the realization that “…key underlying assumptions for later analysis are in fact made at the initial stages of the case study, you could have anticipated and planned the analytic strategies or implications when conducting those initial stages. Collecting the actual data may lead to changes in this plan, but having an initial plan that needs to be revised (even drastically) may be better than having no plan at all.” (2004; p.13)

There are various techniques in analysis that can be used during the case study design with one possibility stated to be the stipulation of some “pattern of findings at the outset” of the case study. The analysis ‘would then consist of pattern-matching the collected evidence against the initially stipulated pattern.” (Yin, 2004; p.13) Other techniques of analysis include:

1) Explanation-building, 2) Time-series analysis, and 3) The use of logic models, and cross-case synthesis.” (Yin, 2004; p.14)

Yin states that “an obvious example would be to tell your story in chronological sequence. (2004; p. 15) Yin also states that case study analysis may be reliant on several techniques, “…whose use might even be anticipated through the initial design of the case study; the analysis can be present throughout a case study…” during the gradual building of an argument that supports the research questions.

Yin states that the five common worries of those using the case study method of research include the following:

How do I know if I should use the case study method to do my study?: According to Yin (2004) “There’s no formula, but your choice depends in part on your research question(s). The more that your questions are descriptive or explanatory the more that the case study method will be relevant;

How should I select the case to be studied?”: According to Yin: “you need sufficient access to the potential data, whether involving people to be interviewed documents or records to be reviewed, or observations to be made in the ‘field’. Given such access to more than a single candidate, you should choose the one(s) that best illuminate(s) your research questions. Absent such access, you should consider changing your research questions, hopefully leading to new candidates to which you do have access.”

I am studying a school. What is my case: Is it the teachers? The reading program? The whole school?: Yin states: “The specific definition of your case again depends upon your research question(s). The least desirable question is to want to know “everything that happened.” Your literature review should help lead to more specific questions of interest and they, in turn, should readily point to the appropriate definition of the case. As a further part of defining your case, do you think you should identify a particular time period, before and after which events will be deemed irrelevant to the case, or is your case timeless?

How much time and effort should I devote to collecting the case study data? How do I know whether I’m finished collecting the data? Unlike other methods, there is no clear cut-off point. You should try to collect enough data so that: 1) you have confirmatory evidence (evidence from two or more different sources) for most of your main topics; and 2) your evidence includes attempts to investigate major rival hypotheses or explanations. What do you think are some of the cut-off points for other methods, and why wouldn’t they work in doing case study research? And How do I start analyzing my case study data? You might start with questions (e.g., the questions in your case study protocol) rather than with the data. Start with a small question first, then identify your evidence that addresses the question. Draw a tentative conclusion based on the weight of the evidence, also asking how you should display the evidence so that readers can check your assessment. Continue to a larger question and repeat the procedure. Keep going until you think you have addressed your main research question(s). Discuss the benefit of starting with questions rather than starting with the data.” (2004; p.16) case study is related by Atkinson and Armstrong which focuses on information and elearning design and practice lessons learned from the student’s experience of elearning. This case study was conducted in the methodology according to Yin and was ‘Interpretive Research’, which is focused on understanding phenomenon through means that people assign to them. This research method has No predefined variables – instead focuses on the complexity of behavior as it emerges. Kaplan and Maxwell (1994) Phenomenological Inquiry is also a methodology related by Yin and is research, which asks the question of: ” What is the structure and essence of experience this for people. (Patton, 1990) This type of research produces data that is rich, thick, descriptive in which themes and patterns are observed by the researcher. This type methodology asks:

1) Who;

2) What;

3) When;

4) Where; and 5) Why.

Recruitment in this type of study is generally accomplished through:

Filter questionnaire


Focus group attendance

It is related in the work of Audet (2005) that Creswell and Stake, whom were both known well for case studies hold that “all studies are value-laden and provide conclusions about value-laden and provide conclusions about value.” (Creswell, 1998; as cited in Audet, 2005) Audet states that case study tradition has as its purpose the promotion of understanding through a description of cases. It is related that the philosophical pillars of the research paradigm, the analysis and representation of data should provide a detailed description of the case and the setting.” (Audet, 2005) The analysis therefore will be “of multiple sources of data to lend credibility to the research through triangulation, using a survey, documents and interviews. It is not an attempt to quantify or establish validity because these are concepts inconsistent with the purposes, philosophy and overall methodology of this research. The case study is described in a manner in which patterns are established and naturalistic generalizations are developed. Two primary sources of information are used in constructing the case study, specifically people and documents. (Audet, 2005) According to Creswell the “goodness’ of a case study lies in the use of the case study inquiry method, the actual design procedures and the researcher’s assumptions.” (Audet, 2005) It is held by Creswell (1998) that the literature relating to qualitative research is assistive in developing sampling of participants for the interview part of research design.” (Creswell, 1998) It is reported that two different strategies were used in garnering participants for interviews and specifically teachers and administrators in this study were given an invitation to volunteer for an interview by contacting the researcher via email. The second strategy was dependent upon the educators responding voluntarily. Finally sampling through a network was also used in a process in which the “names of potential interview candidates were provided through initial interviews with the school district contacts and volunteers. The constructivist paradigm is described as a “basic set of beliefs that guide action” (Lenz, 2005) which comprises the researcher’s ontological, epistemological, and methodological premises. An ontological premise refers to the philosophical assumption about the nature of reality, epistemological to the interrelated relationship of researcher to that being studied, and methodological to the researcher’ conceptualize of the research process.” (Lenz, 2005) In case study research, as the information emerges “the researcher will choose an interpretive path to follow, and will ‘report their cases as cases that will be compared with others.” (Lenz, 2005) The first step in case study is gathering information through a ‘within-case analysis containing a detailed description of each case and its emergent themes.” (Lenz, 2005) The next step is a cross-case analysis, in which themes generated in each individual instance will be analyzed across the entire body of cases. (Creswell, 1998; as cited in Lenz, 2005)

Case study, in the view of Creswell involves the researcher pulling data apart and then reassembling the information in meaningful ways, drawing significant from it through direct interpretation. Patterns will be sought, with correspondences between categories developing in naturalistic generalizations.” (Lenz, 2005) Following individual case analysis, a cross-case analysis will examine and search for themes among the cases in order to make a determination of themes that are common to all cases. (Creswell, 1998) Yin (1994) defines a case study as “…an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real life context, when the boundaries between phenomenon and the context are not clearly evidence, and in which the multiple sources of evidence are used. It is particularly valuable in answering who, why and how questions in management research.” Yin holds that since case study follows the logic of the experiment instead of logic of the survey, it is not necessary to repeat a case study. This is because the formulation of a theory begins the experiment and then an attempt is made to gather evidence that either supports or disproves the theory and the survey is an attempt to gain a general view of something.

The work of Weiss (1997) reports an interview with Robert K. Yin in which he was asked to share his insights concerning the use of case study methodology in community based initiatives. The first question asked of Yin was: “How can case study methodology be used to study the effectiveness of comprehensive and collaborative community-based initiatives?” Yin answered by stating as follows:

As evaluators of program effectiveness, we are often faced with the challenge of identifying why and how interventions lead to observed results or outcomes. Case study methodology, by investigating phenomena in their real-life context, can be a very important tool in opening the “black box” of how interventions and program effectiveness are linked. This is an advantage over traditional experimental and quasi-experimental designs, which may measure outcomes and some process variables but fall short in dealing with the dynamic that is inherent in community-based collaborative initiatives. Our case study work uses a tool called the “logic model.” The logic model outlines the cause and effect steps that link interventions with expected outcomes. It thus lays out the mystery of the “black box” as a set of linkages and hypotheses about how a collaborative really works. These hypotheses can then be “tested” using both quantitative and qualitative data. The logic model concept is not new, as it was first used in evaluability assessment. However, we are using this approach to address one of the perennial challenges evaluators face – determining causality. We use the logic model also to help us identify conflicting models, or rival hypotheses, to use the traditional evaluation term. In traditional evaluation designs, comparison and control groups are used to establish causality. In community-based initiatives, however, it is virtually impossible to identify com comparisons, much less control groups. We use the logic model to help us identify alternative hypotheses about both processes and outcomes and collect data on these as well. We recognize that this approach does not lead to results having the same level of certainty as the perfect experiment, but it can help us to begin to pick things apart and understand what is going on in these very complex initiatives.” (Weiss, 1997: Interview with Robert K. Yin)

The second question asked of Yin was “What role can the case study evaluator play in providing formative input to community-based initiatives?” Yin states:

The logic model, as we apply it, facilitates a participatory approach. We believe everyone’s practice is based on a theory about how things work. The logic model enables practitioners to get these theories, as well as rivals, out in the open. Such an approach may reveal that a theory is flawed, that there are gaps in interventions and what they are expected to yield. This exercise thus helps to build a better theoretical model. We use evaluation workshops and include the evaluators, project director, and staff in the development of the model. We find as well that this process serves an important program development function. This process enables us to refine the theories as we learn more about them and can also make evaluation a better experience. While there might be concerns about the objectivity of results that come from a more participatory evaluation, I think that there is an increasing yielding of the idea of the distant third-party evaluator. However, the participatory approach should not be seen as corrupting the evaluator’s role. Although the evaluator interacts more with those involved in a program, he/she is committed to collect all relevant data and make conclusions on that basis. The participation of theirs in the process early on helps them to understand that in this case, the evaluator plays both a program development and an assessment role. In many cases, we find that practitioners are surprised that those who are typically viewed as third-party evaluators can play an important role in providing ongoing feedback.” (Weiss, 1997: Interview with Robert K. Yin)

The work of Creswell (1994) proposes that advantages exist for a researcher combining methods for gaining a better understanding of the phenomena or concept being tested or explored. Full interpretation is more likely when combining qualitative and quantitative research. The pilot study is important according to Creswell (1994) in that data from the pilot study may be used to enhance the validity of survey/questionnaires and assist in refining these for the study.” According to Creswell (2003) qualitative research is exploratory in nature and used by researchers in examining topics in which the variables and theory base are not known. Limitations in telephone interviews are noted in the work of Creswell (1998) in that there is more difficulty in gaining responses to questions that are sensitive, in “obtaining contextual naturalness, obtaining self-generating responses, distributing power equally, and addressing complex issues.” (Creswell, 1998; as cited in Laman, 2006) However, Creswell (2005) notes that the use of telephone interviews has been found by researchers to be “one of the most inexpensive, quick, and efficient ways to give the investigator a detailed and systemic view of the interviewee’s intended meaning.” (as cited in Laman, 2006) It is maintained by Creswell (1998) that qualitative researchers generally rely on a few cases with many variables.” (as cited in Laman, 2006) The length of an interview in qualitative research design is suggested by Creswell to be approximately 45 minutes and that the interview should be tape-recorded. The survey is utilized in the provision of a description of the characteristics of variables in populations through directly examination of samples. (Creswell, 2005) Creswell 2002 relates that inductive analysis is an approached used to:

Condense raw textual data into a brief, summary format;

Establish clear links between the research objective and the summary finding derived from raw data; an d

Develop a framework of the underlying structure of experiences of processes that are evident in the raw data. (Creswell, 2002; as cited in Laman, 2006)

In relation to ‘internal validity’ Yin (1994) holds that analytical pattern-matching may increase the internal validity if the patterns coincide the internal validly of the case study is therefore increased. Construct validity may be obtained through a “thorough grounding of all questionnaire items within the existing literature.” (Creswell, 1994; Yin, 1994; as cited in Steward and Taylog, 2005)

The importance of pilot studies is related in the work of van Teijlingen and Hundley (2001) which states that the term ‘pilot studies’ “refers to mini versions of a full-scale study” and are also known as ‘feasibility studies’ and are important in testing particular research instruments such as the questionnaire or interview schedule. The pilot study is a crucial element of a good study design and while conduction of the pilot study cannot guarantee the main study’s success, it does increase the likelihood for success as well as providing valuable insights for researchers. (van Teijlingen and Hundley, 2001; paraphrased)

Reasons given for conducting pilot studies include those as follows:

Developing and testing adequacy of research instruments;

Assessing the feasibility of a (full-scale) study/survey;

Designing a research protocol;

Assessing whether the research protocol is realistic and workable;

Establishing whether the sampling frame and technique are effective;

Assessing the likely success of proposed recruitment approaches;

Identifying logistical problems which might occur using proposed methods;

Estimating variability in outcomes to help determining sample size;

Collecting preliminary data

Determining what resources (finance, staff) are needed for a planned study;

Assessing the proposed data analysis techniques to uncover potential problems;

Developing a research question and research plan;

Training a researcher in as many elements of the research process as possible;

Convincing funding bodies that the research team is competent and knowledgeable;

Convincing funding bodies that the main study is feasible and worth funding; and Convincing other stakeholders that the main study is worth supporting. (van Teijlingen and Hundley, 2001)

Pilot study procedures to improve the internal validity of a questionnaire include those as follows:

Administer the questionnaire to pilot subjects in exactly the same way as it will be administered in the main study;

Ask the subjects for feedback to identify ambiguities and difficult questions;

Record the time taken to complete the questionnaire and decide whether it is reasonable;

Discard all unnecessary, difficult or ambiguous questions;

Assess whether each question gives an adequate range of responses;

Establish that replies can be interpreted in terms of the information that is required;

Check that all questions are answered;

Re-word or re-scale any questions that are not answered as expected; and Shorten, revise and, if possible, pilot again. (van Teijlingen and Hundley, 2001)

Three types of case studies are identified by Stake (2000) which are those of:

Intrinsic: conduction of research for its own sake because of a specific interest in one case;

Instrumental: examines a specific case to provide insight into an issue or theory and researches one of more situations to try and understand an outside concern; and Collective: conduct an instrumental study of several cases. (as cited in Clark, 1987)

Stake holds that a ‘case’ is an “integrated system.” (2005; as cited in Clark, 1987; p. 63) Stake (2000) states that in case study research, the cases are chosen by researchers. (p. 446; as cited in Clark, 1987; p. 66)

The work of Yin (2003b) relates that evidence is best corroborated from other sources by documents. (p.87; as cited in Clark, 1987; p.70) Creswell and Miller (2000) state that triangulation is “a validity procedure where researcher’s search for a convergence among multiple and different sources of information to form theme and/or categories in a study.” (p.126; as cited in Clark, 1987; p.92)

In this particular case study the focus groups are ongoing seeking to integrate behavioral modification informed by filter pre-study questionnaires followed by focus group attendance to achieve behavior modification. This includes students, parents of students and adolescent peer groups. Indicative results in this study may include acknowledgement among adolescents of risky online behaviors and willingness to modify this behavior. Further measures in terms of the indicative values will likely include an existence of confusion as to what specific optimal levels of safety are while adolescents are online the Internet as this age is one characterized by adult thinking in some ways and childish yet not matured completely. This is a time when adolescents feel very restricted and are likely to rebel and it is natural to an extent at this age. It is an age characterized by having left behind childish play has not yet matured to the point where a full exposure to adult material is healthy or advisable in terms of their healthy development. This is a time when children must be carefully monitored yet cautionary toward any crippling of their curiosity and desire to learn. Cultural, religious and familial factors and most specifically socio-economic factors may dictate whether the adolescent has had access to a computer in an ongoing manner and whether that access to the Internet was initiated in an environment conscious of the use of adolescents aged children. The perception that is held by adolescents toward online safety or the lack of information concerning safety precautions and parents lacking information about what is the safe level of freedom for their adolescent child while online the Internet. Further, the expectations of the adolescents concerning Internet and accompanying safety features or alternatively the experience or lack thereof of the Internet will likely factor into the ultimate behavior of the adolescent while online the Internet. Yin (1994) states that the case study: “…allows for a rich thick description of the phenomena under study. ”


Audet, Michael (2005) Teacher Professional Growth Plans: A Case Study of the Chilliwack School District. 21 April 2005. Online available at

Creswell, J.W. (1998) Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Lenz, Pamela A. (2005) Perceived Influence on School Effectiveness: Chapters I-III. January 2005. Online available at

Yin R.K. 1994: Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Second Edition, Sage Publications London

Yin, Robert K. (2004) Case Study Methods. 20 Jan 2004. COSMOS Corporation Online available at

Atkinson, M. And Armstrong, K. (nd) Information and Elearning design and practice lessons learned form the students experience of elearning. Online available at

Weiss, Heather B. (1997) Interview with Robert K. Yin – The Information Exchange Vol. III, No. 1: Harvard Family Research Project. Online available at

Creswell, J. (1994) Research design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Creswell, J.W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J.W. (2002). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Creswell, J.W. (2003). Research design. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J.W. (2005). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Laman, Opal Effie (2006) Multiple Case Study Examining Perceptions of Four Adult Sibling Participation in the Individual Education Plan, Transition Mating of a Brother or Sister who is Congenitally Deafblind. 2006 December. Online available at

Yin, R.K. Case Study Research, Design and Methods, 3rd ed. Newbury Park, Sage Publications, 2002.

Yin, R. (1984). Case study research: Design and methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Yin, R. (1994). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA.

Yin, R. (1994 (2nd Ed)) Case Study Research: Design and methods (California, Sage).

Creswell, J.W. (1994), Research Design Qualitative & Quantitative Approaches. SAGE Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, California.

Marshall, Steward and Taylog, Wal (2005) Collaboration in Using ICT for Education and Development. Vol 1 Issue 1 International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology. March/April 2005.

Van Teiljlingen and Hundley, Vanora E. (2001) The Importance of Pilot Studies. Social Research Update. No. 35. Online available at

Clark, Hazel Grace (2006) Teacher Librarians, Technology and Collaborative Connections: A Case Study of Teacher Librarians From a Communities of Practice Perspective. 1987 Simon Fraser University 2006. Online available at

Practical Approach to Case Study Methodologies

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.