Posted: May 25th, 2022

Proposed changes within the profession

Accounting Profession in 2014

In the midst of scandal, the accounting profession finds itself under scrutiny; perhaps more than it ever has in the past. Accounting and auditing scandals have become les frequent since WorldCom and Enron, but that still does not mean that we are now immune. High profile cases continue to haunt the media. As Bernard Madoff is whisked off to jail, the American people are still dumbfounded at how he could fraudulently convert $50 billion in customer assets to personal use. We also have to ask how $1 billion in cash could have escaped the watchful eye of Satyam Computer Services.

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Since the Enron scandal, the processes of accounting and auditing are converging, all while trying to absorb the economic shocks in the capital and mortgage markets. The profession is plagued by controversy over the application of proper valuation techniques and techniques to both assets and liabilities. These are the most pervasive questions plaguing the market, but there are still others out there. This research will examine current issues in the accounting profession and will attempt to provide a forward-looking picture of what the accounting profession will look like in the year 2014. It will examine the future, taking into consideration currently proposed changes and trends within the profession.

Do we need more regulation and is it inevitable?

The accounting profession has undergone more fundamental changes in the last 10 years, than it did for the entire first part of the 20th century. Aside from changes in the complexity of accounting techniques and tools needed in today’s world, the accountant is under constant scrutiny. Accounting and auditing activities used to be separate activities. However, now, in order to keep themselves from coming under fire, they must often perform auditing activities, in addition to accounting activities. One the tail of Enron, WorldCom, and now Madoff, the publish demands much more from them in order to continue to trust them.

The public demands standards, transparency, and accountability from accountants today. The public demanded these things in the past, but it was assumed that the accountant would be honest. Now, one could say that almost the opposite is true and that the public views the profession with an air of distrust. This is a highly reactionary society, and even though most accountants are probably honest, the few bad apples caused quite a stir, largely due media coverage and the high profile status of the cases. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was adopted as a reaction to the public’s demands for transparency and higher levels of standardization.

Sarbanes-Oxley was only the first of many new standards that would have an impact on the accounting profession. The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) was established as a result of the act. The accounting profession is becoming one of the most highly regulated professions and it can be expected that this trend will continue. Public trust has been shaken in the honesty and integrity of the accounting profession. In order to restore that trust, the public must be assured that they can trust accountants and the information that they supply. Accounting has been called the bedrock of our commercial system

. The question is whether regulation stops with Sarbanes-Oxley and the PCAOB, or if the accounting profession can expect even more regulation in the future.

In the past, accountants knew who their client was and were often pressured by managers to paint the best picture of the company possible

. It was all about preserving the appearance of success and the need to keep the share price high. Accounting is not an exact science, and although there are certain rules and principles that must be taken into consideration, there is more than one way to represent the financial status of a company. There are many judgment calls and much subjectivity in the accounting profession

. It was possible to represent the picture of a company in many ways, all of which were accurate, but that left the reader with an entirely different impression of the company. Subjectivity combined with managerial pressure created the situation that eventually led to scandal.

At the time of Sarbanes-Oxley and the PCAOAB, there was a need for quick action in order to restore the perception of order to the accounting profession. The government felt that it had to step in quickly to restore confidence in accountants and in the companies that hired them. According to the American Assembly, the stock bubble of the 1990s was a key contributing factor to the conditions that led to accounting scandal. When the bubble burst, it left managers struggling to meet stockholder expectations. They needed to assure investors that they would receive an ever-increasing stream of quarterly profits

. In their frenzy to deliver what shareholders and other investors wanted, they lost sight of their responsibility to present the information is the most honest manner.

Managerial pressure played heavily on the decisions of accountants to bend to their wishes and to employ “creative” techniques to make the numbers appear better than they actually were. There were a number of players that played a role in creating the scandals. The audit became viewed as a commodity that had a certain degree of intrinsic value

. When the audit confirmed increasing revenues, it had a positive effect on earnings per share

. The accountants were not the only ones to blame for this scenario. There were many managers, lawyers, and boards that approved and pressured accountants to paint a rosy picture for the future, or risk their livelihood and reputation. Many accountants begun to bend and the line between right and wrong became blurred. Professional practices had changed and the line between right and wrong had blurred. Soon this became the new norm in accounting practices.

When the scandals began to surface, auditors and accountants took the blame for the situation, but in reality, there were others that pressured them into their actions. However, the accountants and auditors were the easiest to blame because their actions could be directly liked to the new system of accounting. They were an easy target for shouldering the blame. However, regardless of the true roll that accountants played in the scandals, the fact remained that the profession would never be the same again. Accountants and auditors would be forced to comply with an increasing load of government regulation and oversight.

Members of the accounting profession feel that these regulations have decreased the quality of their work

. The need to adhere to regulations and trying to make a nonstandard asset fit into a standardized format has changed the field of accountancy to the point where it no longer resembles anything like it did in the days before oversight. In answering the question of whether even more government oversight is in the future of accounting, one must understand the nature of government oversight and intervention in a capital system. In general, the philosophy of the United States has been to leave industries alone, as long as they are acting honestly and in the best interests of the American public.

However, when something goes wrong that threatens the foundation of the capital market, or places the economy in danger, the government steps in and puts regulation into place to help mitigate the current crisis and to keep it from reappearing in the future. Their policy has always been to provide just enough regulation to resolve the current crisis, but not to be overly intrusive at the same time. Government policy and regulation is reactionary and as long as things are going well, they tend to let the markets take cares of themselves.

This same reactionary policy was seen most recently when the government stepped in to help resolve the current banking crisis. Up until this point, the discussions have focused on how to make the banks solvent. However, one can count on more regulations for banks in the future, similar to Sarbanes-Oxley. The banking industry can be expected to fall under the same scrutiny and regulation as the accounting industry.

In light of this regulatory attitude, one could expect that no further regulations will be adopted, unless another crisis emerges that demonstrates a need for tighter regulation. New regulations are not inevitable, and would not be likely to be adopted, as long as things continue to go well under the currently existing set of rules. However, if more problems arise then further regulations could be expected. When things go wrong, the American people are used to looking to the U.S. government for leadership and guidance. They expect action from their government in a crisis. However, if things are going well, they do not welcome further government interventions and restrictions. If the current set of standards works and no further scandals occur, then no new regulations can be expected.

What education is needed by the professional accountant to meet future demands?

The new accounting regulations are a bane and a blessing to the accountant. They have provided a level of standardization and created a common language among professionals and laypersons alike. However, they have also changed the face of the accounting profession in a way that will affect the education and conduct of accountants in the future. In the future, the accountant will have to do more than to balance the books. In order to understand the potential educational requirements for accountants in the future, we will examine how they have changed historically and then apply the changes that have occurred due to new regulations in order to paint a picture of what the future of accountancy looks like.

The profession of accounting has been around almost as long as economic trade. An intimate relationship exists between accounting, finance, and the economy. Accounting differs from bookkeeping. When one thinks of bookkeeping, it generally refers to the recording of transactions. This is where bookkeeping stops. Bookkeeping is a part of accounting, but accounting goes farther and tries to paint a picture of the company’s health.

Modern accounting arose as a result of the industrialization that took place in the early part of the 20th century. As manufacturing systems become more complex, accountants had to devise new ways to describe them. Throughout the years, the definitions of terms such as assets and cost have changed

. As business systems became more complex, accountants had to devise new ways to account for an imperfect world. Cost accounting has been an important part of the global success of technology in the latter part of the last century

As much as accounting has changed technology, so has technology changed accounting. Now accountants can use technology to perform operations that used to take much of their time. Accountants can use spreadsheets and put in their algorithms for rapid analysis. This allows the accountant to focus more on analysis, forecasting, and other parts of their role. The accountant now plays a much more important role in the management aspects of the business than they did in the past. The accountant no longer simply generates reports and hands them to management. They have become an important part of the decision-making team.

From an educational aspect, the accounting curriculum includes a much more diverse course offering than it did in the past. These changes in course curriculum reflect the fundamental changes in the accounting profession over the past several years. For instance, the College of Business and Economics at Western Washington University includes courses in marketing and operations management as part of their curriculum

. The University of Cincinnati includes courses in Corporate Law and International Accounting. Many colleges, such as these have recently added a course in ethics and accounting

. An examination of accounting curriculums reveals a much more diverse offering of courses. In general, an examination of curriculum reflects the new role for accountants, one that more closely reflects an intimate relationship with operations management and managerial decisions.

The popularity of ethics courses in accounting is a more recent development. Until the recent outbreak of scandals, ethics in accounting was assumed. However, this is no longer the case. The inclusion of ethics courses in the accounting curriculum is a reactionary measure to help resolve these issues. Accountants now need to consider their actions more closely than they did in the past. There are many opinions as to what the future of accounting will hold and the changes that will be seen in the future. However, it can be expected that the inclusion of ethics courses will grow as a standard part of the accounting curriculum.

Will it be business as usual, with only minor adjustments to processes already set in place?

There have been many suggestions and forecasts as to what the future of accounting will look like. There are some that feel the profession will look similar to what it does today, with only a few minor procedural adjustments. Others feel that the future of accounting will present quite a different face than it does today. The following discussion will highlight the most popular scenarios and their rationale.

One of the most important questions that are being asked is whether the accounting profession currently has the tools and resources that it needs to meet the challenges of the future

. This question was the focus of a recent conference of accounting professionals. One of the key concerns that arose was the question of the accounting of intangible assets. One of the key concerns is that GAAP statements do not capture these types of assets accurately. Intangible assets produce revenue and include things such as designs, brands, subscriber lists, computer programs, and employee skills

. The growing importance of intangible assets is a direct result of the growth of the information age.

If one compares the accounting that was needed at the beginning of the 20th century with that which is needed today, some fundamental differences can be found. At the beginning of the 20th century, much of the production was based on the manufacture of goods. Ideas were important, but the focus of management was on the tangible production of goods and their distribution to the end consumer. The idea of accounting for intangible assets was virtually non-existent. Accounting and managerial decisions were based almost entirely on tangible assets.

Accounting for intangible assets was almost entirely a product of the information age. The problem that accountants face is how to assign a numerical value to tangible assets. However, accountants now realize that intangible assets cannot be ignored as a part of the decision making process. One example of this is the trade name “McDonalds.” No one can argue that McDonald’s has a tremendous amount of value attached to its brand equity. Even use of the name can mean bucks for the company. Anytime the prefix “Mc” anything is used, people can picture the golden arches in their head. However, McDonalds is only a concept, an idea that has come to be associated with a product. This is one of the more pervasive examples of brand equity in our culture today.

No one can disagree that “McDonalds” has a certain value attached to it, but how much to assign to this asset in the ledger book is another matter. Is it worth $100,000, $1,000,000 or $1,000,000,000 in revenues to the company? This is the problem that accountants of today are faced with on a daily basis. They must find a way to assign value to intangible assets in a way that can be reflected in the ledger in a meaningful way. As society moved from the production of goods into the production of “ideas,” accountants had to find many creative ways to accommodate this transition in their ledger. There are many methods for accounting for intangible assets. There is no right or wrong way to do it. The accountant must find the best way for accounting for intangible assets and customize it to meet the needs of the company.

The continued importance of intangible assets in the business world will be a key shaper of the future of accounting. The importance of accounting for intangible assets is already a key problem that is being addressed by accountants on a global basis. This adjustment represents a major change in accounting processes. The most difficult aspect of tackling this issue will be developing methods and guidelines that can help to account for the diversity of needs in this area. One-size-fits all approach will not work in this case. The accounting of intangible assets is essentially different from the accounting of tangible assets.

Another key issue is the appropriateness of GAAP accounting and its ability to produce a reliable picture of every business

. GAAP measures were first developed to accommodate a goods-based economy that featured tangible assets. The basic business model was that resources were purchased turned into a final product that could be sold to consumers. This produced revenue and the cycle continued. Today, there are many different business models and many different ways to generate revenue. GAAP accounting practices do not always make for a true representation of the nature of the business, particularly for businesses that rely heavily on intangible assets.

This was one of the key concerns raised at the American Assemble Conference

. At the current time, GAAP is still the gold standard in accounting. However, concerns have been raised that either these standards need to be adjusted to reflect the new business models that are emerging, or that new standards need to be adopted that are more friendly to today’s business environment. Accountants in non-traditional businesses often have difficulty making their business fit the mold of GAAP. This issue represents another problem that will help to shape the future of accounting practices in the future.

In the past, the only people who saw accounting reports were manager, the accountants themselves, attorneys and others that understood the essentials of the report. Now, the general public has access to the same information that used to be relatively private, with a click of the mouse. This is especially true for publicly trade companies. Users, who consist largely of lay persons, can pull up the financial statement and read it. They may use this information as the basis for investment decisions.

Due diligence used to be the responsibility of the stock broker. They were responsible for reading and interpreting the financial statements of the company so that they could properly advise their clients. Stock brokers are much more adept at understanding the nuances of the financial statement. Now, the introduction of online trading means that persons who do not specialize in finance are using accounting reports to make their own investment decisions. This puts a completely new perspective on the accounting statement. These lay person/brokers have the conception that the GAAP report represents an exact picture of the company’s financial health.

According to the American Assembly Conference, many consumers consider the EPS to be a magic number and that using it means they cannot fail

. When they do fail, they ultimately blame the accountant and will sometimes sue them for misinformation. They fail to understand that they created the situation through their lack of expertise in the field of accounting. The presence of these “armchair” brokers changes the landscape for accountants. It can be expected that accountants in the future will have to increasingly concern themselves with finding ways to protect themselves from lawsuits due to the ability of lay persons to access what was once privileged information.

These adjustments are not minor and paint a different picture for the accountant of the future. In the future, accountants will have to protect themselves from lawsuits, while at the same time, adjust to tighter accounting standards. They will continue to struggle with the problem of the valuation of intangible assets. Although this list is not comprehensive and does not address all of the problems that accountants will face in the future, these issues are expected to be the major issues that will shape the future of the accounting profession.

Will a new format for financial statements help provide disclosure needs?

One of the key issues that emerged in an exploration of issues in accounting and how they will shape the future is the need to develop new standards and procedures regarding statements. Issues have been raised in relation to the GAAP format and its inability to accurately assess newly emerging business models. It is probable in the future that the GAAP format will either become more flexible so that it meets the needs of the future. New formats may also be developed that more accurately reflect the accounting needs of a diverse business field. Currently, these issues are moving to the top of the agenda, and proposed resolutions can be expected in the near future.

The need for a standardized method for accounting for intangible assets is apparent. However, developing a way to account for them in a way that reflects their true nature is another matter. This will continue to be an issue of focus in the accounting profession. Developing proper methods for accounting for intangible assets will continue to be an increasing focus in the accounting profession. In the future, it can be expected that this will be one of the biggest changes in the accounting profession.

Standards for the valuation of intangible assets will have to become part of the accounting standard. However, this issue could be expected to be more problematic than the issue of adjusting accounting measures of tangible assets. The key issue is subjectivity and the number of variations that exist in opinions as to how to fairly assess and place a value on intangible assets. It is not known whether regulators will choose to modify existing GAAP standards to meet this challenge, or whether they will adopt an entirely new set of standards. The only thing that can be for certain, is that the standards that exist now do not meet the needs of the new market. They will have to be changed so that they provide a more accurate picture of the company.

Another key issue that may affect the form that new standards take is public accessibility to financial records. We have already addressed the issues associated with lay persons having access to financial statements. In the past, these statements were written with the finance professional in mind. They were not intended for this new audience of uninitiated. This brings up another issue in the revision of GAAP standards. Do the new standards and forms need to be more user friendly to the average person, or should they continue to focus on the accountant and manager as the primary audience?

This is not an easy question, as it essentially brings up the rights of the lay person to make their own stock decisions. Online stock trading added a new dimension to the accounting profession. When laypersons began to have access to financial information, they expected it to be accurate and absolute. They did not understand the nuances and subjectivity that is inherent in the accounting profession. They failed to grasp the complexity of accounting practices. They demanded transparency, but they did not understand fully what they were seeing when they got it. Even honest accountants may have an issue with this degree of transparency, because it exposes them to undue risk of litigation, simply because all of the general public is not accounting experts themselves.

There has been a question raised to whether there is such as thing as too much transparency. This does not necessarily mean that accountants feel they have something to hide. It simply means that they fear what can happen when the knowledge that they provide is misinterpreted by those that do not have the proper background to understand it.

It is difficult to argue that it is wise to go back to the closed door policy that existed before Enron and WorldCom. The public simply would not allow this to happen. They want to be an active observer and serve as a policing action to make certain that those scandals do not occur again. They want information and feel that only if they can see it, can they be assured that everything is being handled in an honest fashion.

One trend that came out of this that is expected to become even more the case in the future is the separation of the accounting profession from the auditing profession. Accountants used to serve as their own auditors. Now, this practice is viewed with suspicion. The third party auditor is now an important part of ensuring public trust. It is unlikely that this trend will reverse. Auditing and accounting will eventually diverge into two separate industries.

The issue has not been raised publicly yet, but the ability of the public to access accounting information may point to the need for two different accounting forms. One form would be detailed and intended for experts. The other would contain the same information, but would be geared towards a more public audience. The second form would contain more narrative explanation of what the terms and numbers mean. It is apparent that the accountant must now cater to two entirely different audiences, with different levels of expertise regarding the information. They public will not agree to receiving less information, but they do need information that they can understand and apply. Currently, the public is receiving information intended for a different audience.

Another issue that will affect the future of accounting is the need to cater to an International audience. Globalization of businesses means the need to develop standardized forms of reporting so that information can be universally understood by a diversified audience. The adoption of international standards is already underway. However, developing the specifics of these standards remains an issue. The problem centers on the many variations that exist in accounting practices within different countries. Most will agree that if we wish to continue to expand our global presence, then everyone needs to be on the same page. However, getting them there will be a long process.

Globalization and the need to develop standards that unify, rather than diversify the accounting profession will also drive national standards. The development of internationally accepted standards is a necessity. It is likely that national standards will follow suit with international standards. However, it is unlikely that they will substitute international standards for their own national standards that meet the specific needs of their country. In the future, international accounting standards will be the drivers of national and corporate standards. However, until an agreement can be reached as to what these standards should be, national and corporate policies will continue to dictate the accounting profession.


Several key issues were identified that will help to shape the future of the accounting profession. These issues include, the necessity to modify GAAP standards so that they more accurately reflect modern business models. The need to find better methods for accounting of intangible assets is another aspect of this scenario. The need to development more uniform international standards will drive the future development of national and corporate standards. Access by the public to information that was once privileged will also be a key factor in the shape of accounting in the future.

The educational programs in the accounting profession will continue to reflect a changing role and a more active role in the management of the company. Ethics classes will eventually be a requirement, rather than an elective subject. The public will not allow the accounting profession to return to the secrecy that created the conditions leading to the Enron, WorldCom, and Madoff scandals. They demand transparency and they demand to know the truth. The only problem is that they often do not understand what they see.

The accountant of 2014 will resemble the accountant that is beginning to emerge today. The trends that will shape the future are already here and are gaining in momentum. This research contains forward-looking statements and no one can say for certain what the future holds. However, the accountant of 2014 is likely to have a new set of tools to work with, ones that more accurately reflect the diversity that is part of a changing business world. They will be more open with information and will have a new role as public educator. The days of auditing one’s one statements will be a thing of the past. It is not known exactly how the new accountant will emerge, but if current trends continue, it is likely that these changes can be expected in the near future.


Giroux, G. (n.d.). American Big Business and Cost Accounting. In a Short History of Accounting and Business. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from

The American Assembly. (2003). The Future of the Accounting Profession. 103rd American

Assembly. November 13-15, 2003. Leesburg, Virginia. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from


University of Cincinnati. (2009). MS-Accounting Program Curriculum. Retrieved march 29,

2009 from

Wallison, P. (2004). The Future of the Accounting Industry. American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. June 17, 2004. Retrieved March30, 2009 from,filter.all/pub_detail.asp

Western Washington University. (2009). Overview. Accounting Major. College of Business and Economics. Retrieved March 29, 2009 from

End Notes

The American Assembly. (2003). The Future of the Accounting Profession. 103rd American Assembly. November 13-15, 2003. Leesburg, Virginia. P. 1. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from file_future%20of%20the%20accounting%20profession%20report%20final.pdf

The American Assembly. (2003). The Future of the Accounting Profession. 103rd American Assembly. November 13-15, 2003. Leesburg, Virginia. P.4. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from file_future%20of%20the%20accounting%20profession%20report%20final.pdf


The American Assembly. (2003). The Future of the Accounting Profession. 103rd American Assembly. November 13-15, 2003. Leesburg, Virginia. P. 5. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from file_future%20of%20the%20accounting%20profession%20report%20final.pdf



The American Assembly. (2003). The Future of the Accounting Profession. 103rd American Assembly. November 13-15, 2003. Leesburg, Virginia. P. 9. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from file_future%20of%20the%20accounting%20profession%20report%20final.pdf

Giroux, G. (n.d.). American Big Business and Cost Accounting. In a Short History of Accounting and Business. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from


Western Washington University. (2009). Overview. Accounting Major. College of Business and Economics. Retrieved March 29, 2009 from

University of Cincinnati. (2009). MS-Accounting Program Curriculum. Retrieved march 29, 2009 from

Wallison, P. (2004). The Future of the Accounting Industry. American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. June 17, 2004. Retrieved March30, 2009 from,filter.all/pub_detail.asp





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