Posted: May 25th, 2022

Project Planning Management and Control

Program Management

Projects Compared – Belbin analysis

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In order to find a way through which the success of teams could be predicted Dr. Meredith Belbin, a management psychologists, worked in collaboration with Henley Management College in the early 1970s. Business simulations were used in running some experiments for the research by Dr. Meredith Belbin. Participants were divided according to different psychological types such as if they are introvert or extrovert etc. It was his hope to find a team mix that is perfect. In 5 years’ times he was able to establish the fact that in particular types of projects specific clusters or patterns can be made use of in order to predict the success of a team (Bennett, 2001). There is often a preference found in the minds of the individuals regarding these clusters. It was also established by him that it can never happen that one team can be perfect for each and every task (Belbin, 1981; 1997; 2001).

and later on 9 clusters were identified by Belbin. These clusters were called team roles by him and he defined them as “the tendency of an individual to interrelate, behave and contribute to others present in a team in a particular manner.” Names were given by him to these clusters as well. Some of these names are Monitor, Shaper, Evaluator and Plant. The purpose behind giving the names is that they give a clue regarding the kind of behavior exhibited by an individual who has access to that cluster in the team (Belbin, 1996; 1997; 2000).

Predicting which particular team will be able to succeed in which particular scenario was predicted by Belbin. He was able to make these predictions by studying the strengths that will be brought into a group by the individuals present in it in order to perform a specific task. A hypothesis is reinforced by this analysis that it is the interdependence as well as mix of members that the team’s success relies on (Belbin, 1993; 1997; 2000; 2001).


Project A: Corporate Marketing Plan


Environmental Analysis

It was in 2008 that there occurred a change in the economic environment and recession was faced by the world. In 2010, finance was borrowed by the UK Government from international sources in order to protect the British economy from collapsing. In the middle of the year there was a change in the Government and with this change new financial policies were seen. These policies were made in order to reduce the UK debt. A decrease in Government spending will be seen as a result of these policies and it will be the society or social work related funding’s which will have a significant financial effect in 2011. These fundings will be reduced by 7-20% from the funds available to the Scottish Government in 4 years.

The reducing in the funding for the social causes will require for the Marketing to look for other revenue options that will help the social forums in providing their services to a wider community. .


Marketing Strategies

The targets and activities which have been explained in Marketing Operating Plan(s) have marketing strategies as the parameters.

Family Values building should be presented and reinforced in such a manner that excellence is provided by it in the development of moral and value building.

More values should be identified, developed and promoted in order to be added to the things that the staff and society in general need to work upon.

A balanced and demand led portfolio should be supported. It should be able to meet the needs of the workers and the community as well.

In order to support this business or field profitable commercials should be identified, developed and promoted to generate some profits.

With the help of very good employee relations and team work the positive culture and development should be continued.

Robust information should be maintained and provided in order to have effective external as well as internal communication with the key stakeholders.


Brand and Positioning Strategy

Position and reinforce the social work with regards to family value buildingCenters of Excellence in values and morals’ development


Positive staff relations Strategy

With the help of excellent team work and employee relations the development of a positive culture should be continued.

It is very important to learn not only to reward the individuals but also know the importance of these rewards in the times of economic constraints in which these individuals have played their part in the development of Family importance and its values.

In order to improve the image of Family building, its values and morals it is important to look for external recognition from groups, events andindividuals who are working on their own or have collaborated with the community on a wider level.

The Human Resources as well as the Marketing and Sales Centre will conduct a research through which the external additional benefits will be provided to the valued employees who have been working towards the promotion and development of Family values.

The social interaction should be developed in the society and the Marketing and Sales Team should try to make efforts in order to promote the social activities charitable functions etc.

In order to improve the awareness of family values and morals, the social workers will keep on promoting the benefits of strong family bonds.

The social workers will keep on developing their position of being a support to the communities and encourage the people to become a part of the national and local organizations that are working towards the betterment of the society on the whole.

The workers have decided that in order to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their processes as well as the performance indicators they will reward, promote and recognize the groups of employees and individuals.

The Co-ordinator – the appropriate team structure for the structure

The appropriate team structure for the structure is one that consists of a team of co-ordinators. Co-ordinators are thought to be the people who are calm, controlled and confident. They mostly have mature approach and outlook. The whole team is the focus of a Co-coordinator, he/she pays close attention to how the team goals can be achieved and how all the staff and employees should work together. One of the most important characteristics of a Co-ordinator is his ability to organize and control the team in a calm manner in order to ensure that the finest collective performance is given by making use of the resources that are available (Belbin, 2001).

Allowable weaknesses:

low level of creativity

strong structural focus – may not be very clear on output

Behaviors to avoid:

taking credit when the team is successful or blame when it faces failures

masking obstinacy or rigidity by making use of calm determination

Top guidelines for Co-ordinators as managers:

making use of your talents in order to get the most out of your team can be done by you quite easily as, you are at a positional advantage.

a Co-ordinator should have clear objectives and should regularly monitor progress in order to make sure that he/she doesn’t lose sight (Belbin, 2001).


Corporate Communication Strategy

Robust information should be maintained in order to have effective external and internal communication.

The positive PR, views, achievements should be communicated through magazines and newspapers.

Within these organizations that are doing the social work intranet should be used for the purpose of internal communication among the staff and employees.

There should be an internal material bulletin board which should contain all the agendas and goals that the social workers need to work upon. This will help in making all the people involved in understanding what the agenda is and what needs to be done.

Opportunities should be maximized and the risks, regarding the use of social network in order to communicate, should be managed.

Social interactions should be increased between the social workers.

Accurate information should be present for the press release as well as the publication in a form which would arouse interest in the community and more and more people would get attracted to it.

The negative and positive publicity should be responded to in such a way that the values of the organization reflect in it.

The communications materials and publicity should be monitored in order to make sure that it complies with the values, policies and procedures of the organization.

A quarterly external news bulletin should be given in the paper which would highlight the achievement and awards received and given by the organization to individuals and its employees.


Launch a Motorcycle in India


Competitive forces. On the regional and local levels the specialty engineering industry has very strong competition, whereas, this competition is weak on the national level. It is difficult to get the sales figure in this industry as; there is very little business which is done on the national scale.

In the engineering industry there is weak competition in the software-based segment of motorcycle production and relatively stronger one in the paper segment. Right now a dominant market share is held by the paper segment; this marker share comes up to be about 90%. The software segment is growing very quickly as well. There are various firms that the 10% of the software-based share is divided into. With the increase in the popularity of software-based segment, it is being expected that additional competition will also enter the market.


Economic forces. The overall promotion budget has been reduced by a lot companies throughout the nation as they have come across this need to reduce their expenses. Although, it is the mass media advertising in which most of these reductions have taken place. This trend of reduction is likely to continue due to the weak and slowly growing economy.


Political forces. The operations of the engineering company won’t get affected by any of the political events or influences.


Legal and regulatory forces. Recently a lot of attention is being paid to the “junk mail.” There is a huge percentage of the specialty advertising which is distributed through the mail and some of it is considered to be “junk.” In order to control this tide of the advertisement which is being delivered through the mail, legislation might get introduced. However, the fact that more and more companies now are diverting to this method shows that they don’t fear this increase in the legislation.


Technological forces. Personal digital assistants (PDAs) or the personal information managers (PIMs) are now the major technological trends. If these trends continue to increase there will soon be a need for the software-based products to adapt so that they could match this new technology.


Socio-cultural forces. Today, the consumers don’t have a lot of time when it comes to work and leisure.


Today, the consumers have very little time with regards to leisure or work. Ease of use and convenience are the hallmarks of successful products today. Therefore, it is very important for the product to be easy to use and save time in order for the consumers to use it.

1.2.1 The Completer Finisher – the appropriate team structure for the structure

The appropriate team structure for the structure is one that iss made up of completer finishers. The terms that are mostly used to describe Completer Finishers are conscientious, painstaking, detailed and orderly. They have this amazing ability of following through and generally if they won’t be able to finish something, they don’t start it. One of the major contributions that have been made by the Completer Finishers is that they make sure that all the efforts being made by the team are as perfect as they can be (Belbin, 2001).

Allowable weaknesses:

Anunwillingness to represent – they feel that it much better to get the job done by themselves.

putting more focus on the detail even if that will affect the outcome of the whole project.

Behaviours to avoid:

letting anxiety get the better of you and have an impact on the morale of the team as well.

Not letting the team members help even when you are really overworked.

Top guidelines for Completer Finishers as managers:

try to get a balance between the practical outcomes that are required for the team and the need that you have for perfection.

delegation should be done in an effective manner in order to avoid getting overburdened (Belbin, 2001).


Agile Project Management

Agile project management is commonplace and its popularity has increased over the years. “At the end of 2012, agile development process will replace 80% of software development projects. PMI’s research shows that agile use has quadrupled from December 2008 to May 2011” (PMI 2012).

Most people deem that agile approach for managing projects is completely diverse from the conventional approach. The definition does vary from the one defined in Project Management Institute Project Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide). In many editions of Kathy Schwalbe’s writings, Information Technology Project Management, a case study was given where key outputs shaped up planning, initiating, monitoring, controlling, executing and ending the project to make a website for a phony company called, JWD Consulting. The case employed a waterfall approach / prescriptive approach, the product was completed and delivered as the project ended. The same project is mentioned in the seventh edition of the case, stressing the notable differences when agile method is applied in managing the project. The teachers must be well aware of the agile project management, while teaching project management. They must be able to explain how it can employ and how it’s different to conventional forms of project methods (PMI, 2012).

The teams generally don’t decide on one project and decide to manage it by the agile project method either. It’s more like determining whether to drive on a car or to fly in an airplane. The decision has to be made on one singular item with logic. The person would take an airplane in case a tour is kept to a bare minimum with least sightseeing. In case, tour is necessary with sightseeing along the way, then a car would be selected apparently (Schwalbe, 2014).

In the same way, the organizations must use logic to decide whether to employ agile approach or prescriptive approach for managing their projects. The projects involving inexperienced staff, dispersed teams, heavy criteria and bigger risks clear up the requirements and a completion date is reached by employing a predictive approach. In other case, the projects with less tight constraints require more experienced and dedicated teams, small risks, cloudy demands and extensive scheduling are more aligned with agile approach (Schwalbe, 2014).

In most cases, managing projects engages action from all five portions of project management groups. The paper aims to highlights those tools, terms and outputs engaged in agile projects, while employing all five groups.


Conventional vs. agile project management

The conventional project management deems rework and change as a pricey aspect of any software development project. In such a case, it tries to lessen, prevent change in documentation, planning and design. The traditional project management deems that if change occurs in a project, inadequate planning, design and documentation are to be blamed for. The conventional techniques advises a development path which moves in an orderly manner by founding subsystems. The founding layers are laid, then middle layers are laid and final touches are laid (Beck, 2000).

Correspondingly, the agile project management (written agile software development techniques) deems failure of a project as an expensive byproduct of the software development process (the product which isn’t shipped, gone off awry, market value not visualized and quality upsets) (Beck, 2000).

It means that change is inevitable. Change must be managed instead of preventing. In case of agile project management deems documentation, planning and designing to be kept to a minimum. It is more focused on delivering a working project to the client in question in an efficient manner. Also, the subsystems are built and programs are coded to support the necessary features along the way (Beck, 2000).


Agile concepts: ‘Customer’, ‘Done’ and ‘Feature’

The concept of agile project management is based on a few ideas. The decisions, practices and metrics are present in the central concept. For defining the basis of agile project management, three questions must be answered first: What’s a feature? When a feature is done? Who is the client?


Defining a customer

The client pays for the product completed, that is a given of course. In case of agile project management, the role of the client is much more than defined apparently. The client is solely responsible for being the main point of contact for deciding the direction, answering tough questions and prioritizing features. They must be closely aligned with the development team. They should be available as full time part of a team and give their input with respect to feedback, testing, decisions, priorities and research work. Many people are engaged in this case, but the client is the single most important entity (Karleskey et al., 2007).

In case of development of complex technologies and coding complex softwares for businesses, more intricate clients can come in the fold. In systems engineering, many clients may exist; so is the case with hardware engineering and marketing for that matter. Their respective decisions cost cash and value must be translated in return. In these events, the project manager should prioritize decisions among the workforce and develop a single course of action to follow (Karleskey et al., 2007).


Defining features

Feature is defined as per the client’s requirements. The feature is a small unit of functionality:

1: Explained by the client himself / herself with respect to system behavior instead of implementation details

2: The client must be satisfied with its completion

3: It’s quite valuable to the client and he is willing to pay for it generously (Karleskey et al., 2007)

Handy software fulfills the demands and needs of a client. In any case, the agile project management is centered on delivering the proper project to its client (Karleskey et al., 2007).

Features aren’t modules, subsystems, neither are they tasks. In case of Agile project management, features are small, deep narratives which takes in the attention of the client with respect to system behavior. They are known as stories. Features do not entail implementation details and particulars; it only caters to user value and functionality. A well-made feature or for lack of a better world story, shouldn’t take more than a week to put in motion. For instance, ‘The device should turn off when power button is held for three seconds’ (Karleskey et al., 2007).

The developer has segmented his tasks on a day-to-day basis. A multitude of tasks (more of a collection) entails the technical details of completing a particular feature. The sequence of completed tasks completes a certain feature. The features are delivered when subsystems, modules and architecture are combined. This is a bit different from conventional project management. In case of Agile management, the comprehension of software is flip flopped. The focus is more on working features rather than supporting subsystems. This section will be further highlighted on later (Karleskey et al., 2007).


‘Done’ defined

From a bird’s eye view, the term done seems vaguely easier to comprehend. But in case of conventional project management, determining a project’s completion or features can be an arduous task. For example, done is a term understood poorly by the development teams. Done is different to done-done. The former term explains when the developer deems the feature is complete, while the latter term explains if the feature actually complete (Even this state is cloudy). According to Gantt charts, the project has been completed up to 95%, but still the 5% of time exceeds the project’s timeline to totally zero in the software project (Kylmakoski, 2003).

In case of agile project management, ‘done’ has a proper definition, and shows a considerable rate of completion. The feature is complete when it has passed through testing and goes through acceptance, unit and system tests. The system and unit tests are automatic and are operated as regression test suite. System tests and unit tests are made by developers in conjunction with production code (In most cases, the test comes later and test driven development comes first). The acceptance tests are carried out by the client, they can range from manual processes to differences in production test equipment (Kylmakoski, 2003).


The documentation process

Extensive documentation is preferred in the case of project management and software development. The architectural documents and extensive planning are noted prior to project commences. As the source code is jotted down, more documentation is done. As the project completes, more documentation is completed. The main hurdle in case of software development is interim life. With minor adjustments in the program of a system renders long amounts of documentation useless (Kylmakoski, 2003; also see Wheatley, 1999).

In case of agile project management, documentation is brief and flexible. The final draft is pretty simple, as long as the contractual regulations are kept in view. The final draft is a review of the imperative features on a high level and subsystems which will remain constant. The system test suite and unit test suite will work as executable documentation on source code and architecture of the system. While the tests are being updated, the present documentation is also updated. The teams working on development can make use of collaborative documentation systems which are flexible to use for instance wiki for capturing and updating important procedures, setup commands and command models. These systems are useful for team communication and communication in a bigger company. Rapid7 is a documentation technique, which prolongs manual generation and static documentation until required. In this case, all concerned parties are brought on board for attending a one day documentation demo for refinement and editing later by the editing professional. This ensures the documentation work is taken care of, increases communication in a team and documents are setup at the earliest convenience (Kylmakoski, 2003).


Coping with scope and risk management

In case of agile project management, scope and risk management are simple to attain. The risky segments of the projects are completed first. As each task is completed, the burn down chart is kept to date and decisions are taken on latest features and present ones. The velocity calculations ensure an insight into feature planning and resource planning which can be adapted as the need arises to convene with budget and time constraints (Cockburn, 2001).



The conventional project management is not adequate enough to cater to the altering nature of the embedded software projects. In this case, agile project management is all set to aid and equip the project managers as well as software development teams for coping with risks, budgets, schedules and scopes. Thus, a priceless product is created.


Beck, K. (2000). Extreme Programming Explained. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.

Belbin, M.R. (1981) Management Teams, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Belbin, M.R. (1993). Team Roles at Work. Butterworth-Heinemann, Ltd., Oxford

Belbin, M.R. (1996). The Coming Shape of Organization. Butterworth Heinemann

Belbin, M.R. (1997). Changing the Way We Work. Butterworth Heinemann.

Belbin, M.R. (2000). Beyond The Team. Butterworth Heinemann.

Belbin, M.R. (2001). Managing without Power ? Gender Relationships in the Story of Human Evolution. Butterworth Heinemann.

Bennett, H. (2001). Finding round pegs for round holes. The Hospitality Review, p.19.

Cockburn, A. (2001). Agile Software Development. Addison Wesley Longman.

Karlesky, M., Williams, G., Bereza, W. And Fletcher, M. (2007). Mocking the Embedded World: Test-Driven Development, Continuous Integration, and Design Patterns. Embedded Systems Conference Silicon Valley. San Jose, California.

Kylmakoski, R. (2003). Efficient Authoring of Software Documentation Using RaPiD7. icse, pp.255, 25th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE’03), 2003.

Project Management Institute (2012), PMI Agile Certified Practitioner, Retrieved from / New-PMI-Agile-Certification.aspx

Schwalbe, K. (2014). Information Technolo-gy Project Management, Seventh Edition, Cengage Learning, Boston. (Note: The text was made available in November, 2012.)

Wheatley, M. (1999). Leadership and the New Science: Discovering Order in a Chaotic World. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

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