Posted: March 18th, 2023

Progressive development of human society

Criminal Justice

Law enforcement

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Some things are fundamental to the history and progressive development of human society. The evolution of technology brings with it new challenges in the management of the security of the state. For this motive that law enforcement systems is set in the society to maintain and promote law and order (Law enforcement, 2002). Law enforcement systems act in organized manner, in the process of promoting adherence to the law of the country and identifying those who violate the laws and norms that govern the society. Law enforcement engages in the patrols and surveillance in dissuading and discovering criminal activities, investigating and apprehending the offenders. Law enforcement agencies and systems work in conjunction with judiciary services and correctional facilities, following the constitution of the land.

Parts of the Constitution of the United States most relevant to the ethical standards of law enforcement professionals

The United States law enforcement agencies — that is the police and private law enforcers- compose the professionals in the system. These professionals work within the designated constitutional principles of the country in their duty of maintaining order. The constitutional requirements for recruiting and qualifying to become a law enforcement professional govern the professionals. The constitution has parts that regulate the operations and conduct of professionals in their duty (Tierney, 2009). The rules in the constitution relevant to the ethical standards of professionals are as follows: the professional should not exceed their authority in enforcing the law. The police shall not knowingly disobey the law or rules of criminal procedures. The police shall not restrict the freedoms of individuals, whether in arrest or detention, in violation of the laws and the constitution of the United States. The professionals, whether on or off duty, shall not consign any action that is against the law of the United States, unless when permitted by the performance of duty. The professionals should carry their duty with integrity, fairness and impartiality, adhering strictly to the constitution of the country; hence maintaining public faith in them. The professionals perform their duties in applying the law without prejudice and discrimination. The rationale behind this principle requires the trust and confidence of the public (Prenzler, 2009). This principle helps to maintain the effectiveness of professionals in their line of duty. The professionals have the obligation to treat the public with courtesy, respecting the rules and laws of the country. The constitution, therefore, outlines the expectations of the society on the law enforcement professionals in their line of duty. These constitutional provisions allow the professionals to operate ethically within the society.

How do law enforcement professionals ensure that they uphold the Constitution?

Law enforcement professionals have the obligation to enforce the law while upholding the constitution of the country. The process of recruiting the professionals to operate as law enforcement officers, there is a justified course followed to ensure that they follow the constitution (Prenzler, 2009). The first step to ensure that the professionals adhere to and uphold the constitution is the public affirmation of adherence to the oath of honor. The oath of honor for the professionals is the most powerful vehicle that demonstrates the ethical standards of upholding the constitution. To ensure that there is integrity within these enforcement organizations, the authority administers the oath of honor, which ensures ethical mentorship and modeling which is consistent with the constitutional requirements. The police uphold the oath of honor as a tool and measure to keep the law enforcement agencies within the right operations of the law.

Secondly, to ensure that the police maintain law and order, as well as, adhere to the constitution, there is the constitutional judicial system that deals with the enforcement professionals (Barker, 2011). This system addresses the issues and cases of legislation that govern the law enforcement professionals. When the professionals commit a crime, the judicial system prosecutes the cases of the officers and allows justice to prevail. Therefore, this department of the law enforcement professionals maintains the order within the operations of the country; hence maintaining law and order while upholding the constitution of the United States. Additionally, the law enforcement professionals have a social development format that addresses the social well-being of the officers. The counseling and social development departments help the professionals to develop effective code of conduct that keeps them in obedience to the constitution of United States. When the professionals adhere to the constitutional provisions that govern their code of conduct, they operate within the United States constitution; hence abiding by it.

The law enforcement professionals use of the social justice principles of equality, solidarity, and human rights to build a more just society

The law enforcement professionals can work within the principles outlining their code of conduct while at work to build a more just society. The principles in the rule governing their relations with the public include aspects of equality, in which they treat each all people fairly, without discrimination in lines of race, gender or any other affiliation. In the second aspect of solidarity, the professionals have the obligation to perform their duties willingly, committing to maintain law and order and obey the constitutional terms. Law enforcement is a service that requires commitment and the professionals by committing themselves can ensure they build a fair society. Human rights and society are inseparable as there cannot be a just and fair society without human rights. The constitution of the United States has the provision of the bill of right, which the police can enforce to ensure that the public gets the quality service it deserves (Rosen, 2004). There are progressive reforms in the law enforcement organizations that are trying to help the professionals achieve social justice in the society. These reforms target issues such as all forms of social and political corruption. With the principles of solidarity, human rights and equality, the professionals can establish a more just society.

Why do people commit crime?

The subject of criminology examines how to handle crime and prevent it from occurring. Through the years, there are several theories that explain the origin of crime and the reasons why people engage in criminal activities. Some of the key theories explaining, why people commit crime include, the rationale theory, in which, people after weighing the risks associated to the crime, act in self-interest and commit the crime for personal gain (Barker, 2006). The second explanation is the social disorganization theory, which explains that the physical and social environment also primarily determine the behavioral choices of a person. For instance, a neighborhood with fraying social structures promotes high crime rates. The social setting of the individual; thus, is responsible for the behavior of the persons. Another theory why people commit a crime is the strain theory, which alludes to the fact that many people have similar aspirations of life. However, not all people have the same opportunities and abilities; hence, when the people fail to achieve the expectations of the society through the genuine means, they use crime as an alternative.

Additionally, there is the social learning theory, which states that some people develop the motivation to commit a crime from the associations they have. When a person keeps such company, they are likely to commit a crime. Moreover, there is the aspect of labeling theory, which implies that people become criminals by the labeling from those in authority (Barker, 2006). Lastly, the social control theory explains that people commit crime if the society does not place control over their actions. Thus, it places the cause of crime on the failure of the society to act accordingly. All these theories, in critical view, have an explanation of why people commit crime.

The law enforcement professional and criminal theory understanding

Criminology outlines the various theories that explain why people commit crime. From these theories, law enforcement professionals can base their crime analysis. The theories explain why people in the society commit crime, hence opening the doorway to understanding the places in which crime is most likely to take place. Additionally, the criminology theories explain the cause and effect aspect of the relation between crime and the society. The society setting presents the place and venue for the crime to take place. Therefore, when the law enforcement professionals understand the cause of crime in the area, they can easily prevent the crime from happening in the future. Therefore, understanding the theories that explain the origin of crime will diversify the focus of professionals in combating crime, in the country, and consequently relate the crime with the societal setting and environment. They will prevent and reduce the rate of crime occurrence in the society by understanding crime theories, which will also facilitate investigations.

What are three main issues that face law enforcement professionals on a regular basis? What are the best responses to these issues?

The law enforcement professionals operate within a society and thus are subject to the happenings within the society. In the course of duty, these professionals face challenges such as the lack of cooperation from the public. Most communities have a skewed view of the law enforcement professionals, which makes it difficult for professionals to operate (Barker, 2011). Secondly, the professionals face a challenge with attending to the vast population with their limited numbers. This slows the efficiency of crime prevention through patrols and other means. Additionally, there is the challenge of the societal creations that bring about the criminal acts. Reaching the agents of the crime manufacturing in the society is difficult; thus, the professional finds it hard to attend to matters concerning the crime prevention process.

In combating these challenges, the professionals can take various models of operation. These strategies to curb the issues challenging the professionals include, empowering the community, which simplifies the relation between the professional and society. The professionals can develop community-based policing in which the professionals rely on the citizens for information and intelligence of unlawful acts (Barker, 2011). The professionals can also decentralize the authority to improve the response to the neighborhood-based crime. Using the crime theories, the law enforcement agency can develop specific professionals for the role of prevention and control of crime and such acts: rather than officers generalize their training. The professionals can also establish and seek a broad belief from the public in their function. With these operations, the society will be safe.

The safety of the people is imperative for progress in all sectors, economically, socially or politically. Therefore, the law enforcement professionals have an obligation to safeguard the rights of the people in the country by maintaining law and order.


Prenzler, T. (2009). Police corruption: Preventing misconduct and maintaining integrity. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Barker, T. (2011). Police ethics: Crisis in law enforcement. Springfield, Ill: Chares C. Thomas.

Law enforcement. (2002, Credit Management,, 22-22. Retrieved from

Rosen, M.D. (2004). Exporting the constitution. Emory Law Journal, 53(1), 171-232. Retrieved


Tierney, J. (2009). Criminology: Theory and context. New York: Longman.

Barker, T. (2006). Police ethics: Crisis in law enforcement. Springfield, Ill: Charles C. Thomas.

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