Posted: May 25th, 2022

Policy Decision term paper

Public administrators now play an increasingly prominent role in policy decision-making. This is to the point where their names and likenesses become inadvertently attached by the media to a policy and its implications. A current case in point would be Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and the role he plays in shaping America’s policy towards Iraq. Due to the media’s focus on his opinions regarding that policy, the general public has come to identify him as one of the individuals most responsible for developing and supporting it.

The war in Iraq had always been a contentious issue for both the U.S. And the world since before its inception. Now the situation in postwar Iraq has become the latest hot topic for debate. It continues to cause political battles to be fought along party lines between American policymakers in the Bush administration and those in Congress. The main issue now is in regard to how much longer the U.S. military should remain in Iraq and how well it could stabilize the country before leaving.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Policy Decision term paper
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

The major players within the U.S. government who have helped the president formulate the Iraq policy are Vice President Dick Cheney, former National Security Advisor (and future Secretary of State) Condoleeza Rice, former Secretary of State Colin Powell, and of course Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. The State Department, Department of Defense, and CIA have been the agencies most involved with formulating and supporting the policy on Iraq since before the war. Secretary Rumsfeld and his agency have played an especially critical part in implementing the policy itself.

All the figures that were involved in formulating the Iraq policy were seen as the hawkish elements of the administration, with the possible exception of former Secretary of State Colin Powell. Rumsfeld was seen as being particularly hawkish. He was often found holding opposing viewpoints regarding Iraq policy from those of Secretary of State Powell. As can be seen his viewpoints eventually won out and played an important role in the formulation of the policy.

Soon after the policy was implemented, it polarized lawmakers and the general public. In the past, U.S. policy on postwar Iraq came under intense scrutiny both from within the U.S. And from around the world. Domestic scrutiny occurred due to the immense difficulties the U.S. military was facing there even after the war. Postwar insurgencies contributed to increasing numbers of U.S. military casualties, and the defense agency’s budget was quickly rising to cover the costs of war.

International scrutiny came about after media attention focused on the state of U.S. military prisons, such as Abu Ghraib, holding Iraqis. All these factors led to much criticism and opposition towards Defense Secretary Rumsfeld and his Iraq policy. Calls for his resignation were being made, especially during the Abu Ghraib scandal, by policymakers in Congress. Rumsfeld’s position in the eyes of the people changed drastically from the time when he was being praised for his handling of Afghanistan to when he began to be criticized and ridiculed for his handling of postwar Iraq.

Now as George W. Bush enters his second term in office, he is in the midst of deciding how his Cabinet should be reorganized. According to recent news articles on the topic, Bush wanted Rumsfeld to remain as defense secretary. This revealed the level of confidence Bush has towards Rumsfeld’s handling of Iraq. Rumsfeld, for his part, will not change the U.S. military situation in Iraq; he wants to continue its presence there. Thus, this issue will continue to play out as a contentious debate between policymakers in Congress and the administration.

Congressional Democrats will observe how successfully the administration can get Iraqis ready for elections in January 2005. They will also observe how it handles the aftermath of the prison scandal as it continues to investigate and prosecute those involved in that. The success or failure of both these endeavors will be factors towards deciding whether the overall policy on Iraq was successful or not. If the U.S. cannot leave Iraqis to take over their country’s affairs soon, major fallout could occur between the administration and policymakers in Congress, as well as affect public opinion both within the U.S. And around the world.

Collateral issues that have been raised bear direct relationships to the main issue discussed here. One such issue involves how the U.S. military could be modernized, which Rumsfeld has promised to address in his new term. The current state of the U.S. military has made it incapable of handling guerrilla warfare and terrorist attacks. Thus, Rumsfeld’s main concern for this term, besides being Iraq, is to significantly enhance the military’s capabilities.

One other collateral issue involves how much U.S. operations in Iraq will affect those in Afghanistan. Rumsfeld will continue to stretch the U.S. military’s capabilities in both countries, and lawmakers are concerned over how much more time, energy, and resources these endeavors will take up. Also, as long as the U.S. military is unable to leave Iraq, lawmakers and the public will continue to dispute the level of importance given to Iraq over Afghanistan, as Iraq has not been proven to serve as a haven for terrorists during Saddam’s rule, as opposed to Afghanistan.

The issue surrounding postwar Iraq is symptomatic of concerns regarding overall U.S. counter terrorist measures. Political concerns deal with how well defined such measures are and how quickly and effectively they could be implemented. The war in Iraq, as an example of these broader measures, demonstrated the confusion regarding what the war on terror exactly entailed. Questions were raised after the war as to how it related to the overall war on terror, especially since none of the reasons justifying it were found to be true, such as the weapons of mass destruction claims and Saddam’s supposed ties to Al-Qaeda.

Its implementation has also led to questions over how effectively the U.S. could rid the world of terror. Stabilizing postwar Iraq has turned out to be much more difficult than expected what with the underestimation of the postwar insurgency and the ineffectiveness of the interim government to win the devotion of the Iraqi people.

Broader social concerns regarding U.S. counter terrorist measures involve how successfully and readily the U.S. government can eliminate terrorists around the world and how effectively it could protect its own borders from attacks. The U.S. war in Iraq has revealed the awesome military power of the U.S. In quickly subduing its enemies during war. The continuing postwar insurgencies, however, reveal that the U.S. military will have to undergo major upgrading in order to meet these new challenges.

The ability of the U.S. To prevent any future attacks from occurring within it, are now being questioned by Americans. They fear that instead of decreasing these attacks, the Iraq war may actually cause more terrorists to attempt such attacks since the war has been increasingly unpopular throughout the world. Concerns such as these over Iraq policy are indicative of how the U.S. counter terrorist measures are viewed overall by the American public.

As it can be seen, Secretary Rumsfeld has now become a prominent figure of importance in the shaping of U.S. policy towards Iraq. He is being held solely responsible for its implementation and results. The success or failure of this policy will permanently be linked to him and thus affect how he will be perceived in history.


Sammon, B. (2004, Dec. 4). Rumsfeld agrees to stay on as defense chief. The Washinton Times. Retrieved Dec. 4, 2004 from the Washington Times Website.


Bush comments on Thompson terror worries.( 2004, Dec. 4). The New York Times.

Retrieved Dec. 4, 2004 from the New York Times Website. .


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.