Posted: May 25th, 2022

Performance Measurement for Project Management

Performance Measurement for Project Management

Every enterprise which employs a diverse and multifaceted workforce to facilitate organization, production, and service, from major international corporations to local community churches, utilizes a concept known as performance management to maximize their efficiency and effectiveness. The field of performance management has been defined by managerial researchers as a “strategic and integrated approach to increasing the effectiveness of companies by improving the performance of the people who work in them and by developing the capabilities of teams and individual contributors” (Armstrong and Baron, 1998), and the technique has been used since the 1970’s by businesses seeking to improve their organizational results. For the sake of the MGM Grand Hotel and Casino’s proposed luxury tour bus renovation project, it is essential to examine the complex issue of performance management from the varying perspectives of the different stakeholders involved, including the project’s sponsors (MGM Grand Hotel and Casino), the project manager’s tasked with ensuring successful completion, and the various team members, suppliers, and consumers who contribute input to the implementation process. The following performance measures have been identified as critical to the eventual success of the luxury tour bus renovation project, as substandard levels of performance in any of these capacities could result in systemic failures throughout the entirety of the project life.

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Performance Measure # 1: Functionality

Within all sectors of private industry, from product manufacturing to food service, the human element creates a natural level of error, and thus the need to prevent incorrect operation of an interactive system has become paramount for every large company or corporation. Every operational process engaged in by a person, whether a worker or a customer, presents an array of opportunities for that person to commit avoidable mistakes which nullify the operation’s beneficial potential. By designing a product or mass production system in such a way that these mistakes cannot be made, or essentially “fool-proofing” something so that it can only be used correctly, it is possible to reduce or eliminate entirely the type of errors which can cumulatively cost companies millions of dollars per year. The Japanese have perfected this concept of specifically engineered fail-safes through the widespread use of Poka-Yoke, a term which is “translated as ‘resistance to errors’ by avoiding (yoker) errors resulting from inattention (poka)” (Dudek-Burlikowska & Szewieczek, 2009). By recognizing the potential for defects in the performance of any process, and consciously redesigning that process in such a way as to remove the chance of that error occurring, it is possible to create systems that can only be operated in the intended fashion. The underlying philosophy and methodology of Poka-Yoke “was introduced by Dr. Shigeo Shingo in 1961 & #8230; one of the engineers for Toyota Motor Corporation & #8230; to prevent defects and errors originating from the mistake” (Dudek-Burlikowska & Szewieczek, 2009), and is positioned today as one of the three pillars of Japan’s national policy of Zero Defect Quality Control.

The concept of Poka-Yoke has been integrated into the redesign of MGM Grand Hotel and Casino’s luxury tour bus line in a number of ways, including the inclusion of cup holders that do not allow for standard-sized bottles or cans of beer, and a seating arrangement that prevents people from infringing on other rider’s personal space. Knowing that tour bus occupants on a vacation in Las Vegas are likely to ride for only short amounts of time between the MGM Grand and their chosen destination, requiring drivers to make a number of stops in a short period of time, project managers have strived to achieve optimal functionality by equipping the renovated tour buses with wider doors that allow for two occupants to disembark simultaneously. Finally, in accordance with the precepts of Poka-Yoke described above, the interface terminal used by drivers to coordinate with dispatchers has also been redesigned to ensure that strict schedules are maintained with a high rate of reliability.

Performance Measure # 2: Sponsor Specifications

As the MGM Grand Hotel and Casino is a globally recognized corporate brand, it is essential that all buses renovated under the current project meet a strict set of design, installation, and functionality specifications. The inclusion of MGM Grand’s distinctive lion logo and other sponsor specifications should be considered to be of the utmost priority, because the entire product line can be rejected due to the slightest alteration or divergence from these mandates.

Performance Measure # 3: Schedule, Scope, and Cost Control (Triple Constraint)

It is widely known within the project management profession that “to create a successful project, a project manager must consider scope, time, and cost, and balance these three often-competing goals known as the triple constraint” (Schwalbe, 2011), and the overall success of the luxury tour bus renovation will be largely determined by the project’s adherence to these three distinct objectives. If the fully renovated buses are delivered to MGM Grand’s vehicle distribution center for initial testing within one week of the predetermined deadline, while the corporate-mandated budgetary limitations are satisfied fully, the project management team can comfortably consider this project to be successful according to the triple constraint.


Armstrong, M., & Baron, A. (1998). Performance management: The new realities. London: Institute of Personnel and Development.

Dudek-Burlikowska, M., Szewieczek, D. The Poka-Yoke method as an improving quality tool of operations in the process. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering 36/1 (2009) 95-102.

Schwalbe, K. (2011). Information technology project management. (6th ed.). Boston: Course Technology Ptr.

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