Posted: May 25th, 2022

Medical Trials in a Developing Country

Global Healthcare Ethics and the Randomised HIV Trial

Healthcare professional face a range of ethical issues in the pursuance of their vocation. In the context of HIV research and the conducting of research among vulnerable population, such as poor expectant mothers in developing countries, the compete of global health ethics should provide a foundation for the assessment of ethical practices, both in planning, undertaking, and reviewing the work (WHO, 2014; Stapleton et al., 2013). Global health ethics is an interdisciplinary field, which covers not only health research, but also issues such as the provision of healthcare, and development of health policy, with the aim of understanding the moral values which should be implemented at a global level, undertaken utilising a predominantly geographic approach to macro level health issues (Stapleton et al., 2013). In this context, global health ethics is primarily concerned with issues such as pandemics, the effects of natural disasters, poverty, and other health-related factors that affect large populations (Stapleton et al., 2013). The content approach may also be adopted towards global health ethics, with the health issues themselves are also considered, which combines both the macro level, and the micro level, and issues associated with medical ethics in terms of treatment (Stapleton et al., 2013; Pinto and Upshur, 2009).

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Medical Trials in a Developing Country
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

It may be argued that the research study in Africa, Thailand, and the Dominican Republic, which took place in 1997 with sixteen randomised trials in developing countries, researching a drug to prevent HIV being transmitted from mothers to their unborn infants would come under the remit of global health ethics. HIV is certainly a global issue, with millions of people infected. The research tackled an issue which may help to improve health outcomes for thousands of people, by preventing the transmission of HIV in utero, therefore presenting disease, which is always better than treatment. However, the study was controversial as it included 17,000 pregnant women, and of the sixteen randomised trials, fifteen trials involved a placebo was used as a control.

The ethical dilemma presented in this case is the potential harm that could be created for the unborn children. The global health issue requires assessment of treatment, as a positive outcome may save thousands, if not millions, of children being born with HIV. This would have a significant impact on the lives of the individuals, as well as societies which suffer from high levels of HIV incidences. For research to be valid, it is necessary to compare a treatment against a control, which is usually a no treatment group, although this may also include existing established treatment as a comparison. Therefore, it may be argued there is need for the research which was conducted. However, the research design is controversial, with the utilisation of a placebo. General ethical approaches towards medical interventions usually seek to minimise the potential for harm. In this research, in fifteen of the trials, the control group received only placebos. The placebo should have no medical impact, and therefore mothers receiving this drug were receiving no treatment. This is controversial and three counts, firstly, the mothers themselves may be suffering as a result of taking a placebo, as alternative treatments may have been available. Secondly, the main subject of the treatment; the unborn children, are a particularly vulnerable population, and may have been placed at greater risk as a result of the research. Thirdly, the mothers participating in the study came from underdeveloped nations, where there are low levels of healthcare and low levels of education, so may not have completely understood the potential risks to themselves, as well as to their unborn children. Global health ethics is particularly concerned with the vulnerable populations, who suffer from an asymmetry of power and knowledge, which may negatively impact on the decision-making capabilities (Pinto and Upshur, 2009). A further controversial issue associated with this study is the way to place the developed nations, with arguments that this type of study design would not have been acceptable in the developed world, and was therefore an effective form of racism; placing the risk of the research on the poor developing nations, who subsequently failed to benefit from the research.

A number of different models have been developed to assess global health issues, Kass (2001), developed a model for public health interventions, which Pinto and Upshur, (2009), argue is suitable for application within the global health environment. Kass argued that ethics could be assessed by asking six questions, including the examination of the goals, questioning the effectiveness, assessing burdens who bears, as well as judging fairness in the way that was implemented. In this instance, the goals themselves may be laudable, and effectiveness of the study testing a drug against a control sample with an absence of any alternative treatment may be argued as effective. However, the burden of this research would invariably be felt by the unborn children, which could be argued as unfair, especially when the mothers may not have full knowledge regarding the risks they are taking by participating. In addition, you may also be judged as unfair in terms of implementation, as researchers may be leveraging the asymmetry of power present in the developing nations, an asymmetry that is less in the developed nations research more difficult to conduct.

If the research had been conducted in a developed nation, the application of the six questions may have been different. For example, the effectiveness goals would remain intact, but the fairness of implementation may be judged in a different manner, as those participating may have a greater level of knowledge and empowerment, choosing whether or not to participate. However, the burden of implementation of the study would remain on the unborn infants, who may benefit from the research if they receive the drug, but may also suffer as a result of receiving a placebo, or present with unknown side effects which manifest during the trial. Therefore, the main differential in undertaking the trial in a devout of the developing country, would be the increase knowledge and power of the potential sample, as well as increased public interest and influence from the media if an ethical research was discovered to take place, which also acts as a check and balance.

However, research is needed in order to find treatments, and research will often result in harm to some participants. From an ethical perspective, the harm is minimised if the individual suffering the burden is fully aware of the risks, and their own harm is minimised through the care taken in the implementation. It may be argued that throughout history there have been controversial trials, that have resulted in significant social benefits. For example, if Jenner had not noted the linkage between cowpox, and the avoidance of smallpox, and subsequently carried out in trials, smallpox may not have been virtually eliminated from the modern world. It was a result of clinical trials for vaccines that other conditions, such as polio and measles, have been developed, improving the lives, preventing diseases spreading to literally millions of children is over the last few decades. In all cases, the initial trials may have resulted in some harm, but the social outcomes are now taken for granted, and have significantly improved global health. This invariably leads to social change, with a reduction illness, better life quality for those who would otherwise be disease, as well as their friends and family.


Kass. N.E., (2000), An Ethics Framework for Public Health, American Journal of public health, 91, 1776-1782

Pinto, A D; Upshur,, (2009), Global health Ethics for Students, Developing World Bioethics, 9(1), 1-10

Stapleton, G; Schroder-Back, P; Laaser, U; Meershoek, A; Popa, D, (2013), Global health ethics: an introduction to prominent theories and relevant topics, Global Health Action, 7, 235-69

World Health Organization, (WHO), (2014), Global Health Ethics, retrieved 19th December 2015 from

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.