Posted: May 25th, 2022
Learning Disability Student ESL
There is an urgent necessity to help reading-disabled pupils read, since weak reading skills are linked to serious consequences. Children who fail at reading properly will be prone to dropping out of school and facing pervasive scholastic issues. To add to this scenario’s urgency, standard instruction does not aid most pupils who fail to grasp adequate reading skills during their early elementary years even till they complete school. Further, premature basic reading issues often lead to limited time devoted to text reading, on account of which decoding issues can ultimately grow into a generalized deficiency in reading marked by poor proficiency, general knowledge and vocabulary, which further impair reading comprehension in pupils (Otaiba & Denton, 2015). Reading/writing issues resemble dyslexia symptoms. That is, dyslexics can’t be told apart from pupils suffering from general reading issues. The present age recognizes literacy skills and considers them crucial to students’ self-concept, thereby posing challenges for dyslexics. As compared to developmentally-normal pupils, dyslexics suffer an inferior scholastic self-concept as compared to overall self-concept. As dyslexia impacts self-esteem, children suffering from writing/reading issues can develop emotional and social issues, psychiatric issues, etc. more frequently as compared to non-dyslexics (Pritima, Takala, & Ladonlahati, 2015).
Reading Disabilities Conditions
There are two elements in reading skills — decoding and reading comprehension, giving rise to 3 kinds of reading issues: comprehension issues, decoding issues, and decoding and comprehension issues. Oregon University’s “Five Big Ideas in Reading” interpretation of a research by the National Reading Panel (University of Oregon, 2016) identified 5 reading elements as fluency, phonemic awareness, vocabulary, comprehension, and alphabetic principal.
Reading program instructors claim pupils must feel safe and not judged or threatened, and must open within themselves a unique means to explore and discover using their distinctive understanding. Music helps, as it can travel, deliver and create meanings in the student’s internal and external development, and help acquire communication proficiency.
Challenges in Teaching Sessions
Challenges linked to providing reading-disabled students with a holistic atmosphere include (Connor, Alberto, Compton, & O’Connor, 2014):
1. Students with hearing issues struggle with grasping reading’s auditory facets, like letter-sound associations and phonological awareness. Intellectually-disabled kids encounter cognitive problems affecting reading progress, augmented by their placement in general education classrooms.
1. A valid, accessible evaluation gauges every pupil’s targeted skills and knowledge, including pupils whose traits complicate correct measurement by conventional means.
1. Another crucial aspect is: support to novel means to identify learning-disabled pupils. This necessitates diverse scientifically-grounded interventions for reliable, valid evaluations to check student responses.
Educators’ and scholars’ views of readers and reading evolved (revaluing). They began encouraging, rather than correcting, pupils, emphasizing meaning construction within reading. Retrospective Miscue Analysis grounded in linguistic miscue analysis-connected studies requested educators to think about reading as a receptive and active language process, with readers being language users. This greatly constructivist approach to reading has its roots in socio-psycholinguistics, a discipline that emphasizes powerful dynamic links between linguistic, social, and cognitive elements of language development and reading. Readers employ their complete background knowledge for decoding, predicting, and confirming meaning within text whilst reading, applying syntactic (grammatical), grapho-phonic (letter-sound association) and semantic (meaning) language cueing structures (Born & Curtis, 2013).
Practical student effort was possibly the most crucial aspect. Educators were urged to attempt this technique in class, ensuring maximum possible student engagement. By charting personal progress and mulling over one’s learning, pupils acquired control over personal reading development. Thus, Retrospective Miscue Analysis represents an ideal means for individual students’valuing of themselves as a reader and is recommended to every pupil as an effective reading enhancement tool (Born & Curtis, 2013).
Students were directed to remain involved in the learning process and jot down whatever the educator notes on his/her smartboard. They were required to pay attention to classmates’ discussions, which gave them a sense of liberty to convey their thoughts and feelings, whether close or not in individual vocabulary terms’ meanings. Bit by bit, pupils started using novel vocabulary terms in sentences whilst conveying their views. Students were placed in heterogeneous groups. For dealing with multicultural problems, educators spent equal time with individual groups depending on student benefits to disclose their views openly. Educators must pay keen attention to individual pupils’thoughts and ideas.
A Diagnostic Instrument for Evaluation
Educators can implement any one strategy outlined below for better detecting language and speech problems (Hamilton & Glascoe, 2016).
Tests for Assessing Students with Reading Issues
Ages and Stages Questionnaires
4 months – 6 years
Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status
Developmental lag and behavioral/emotional issues
Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status: Developmental Milestones
Reading, numeracy and other developmental skills
Safety Word Inventory and Literacy Screener
General scholastic performance
Gray Oral Reading Tests*
Oral reading proficiency (fluency, pronunciation, grasp, reading rate, etc.)
Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing*
Phonologic understanding, decoding ability, swift naming, phonologic memory, and rhyming words
Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests*
Reading-related weaknesses and fortes
* — Not screening tests; they lack cut-offs to aid referral decisions.
Need for a Structured Instructional Core
Word recognition instruction’s most salient result is student recognition of actual words rather than merely sounding ‘nonsense’ words via phonics abilities. The following instructional elements work best to improve learning-disabled pupils’ word recognition abilities and the ideal word recognition-connected reading plan will encompass all of them (Stanberry & Swanson, 2016).
1. Improving Word Recognition Ability
Program Activities/Techniques (What educators must do)
Divide tasks (for instance, make pupils break new words into distinct parts/sounds).
Slowly decrease cues/prompts.
Tally difficulty levels to students and tasks.
Arrange short activities (for instance, devote the first ten minutes to reviewing unfamiliar vocabulary from prior lessons, followed by devoting five minutes to underlining novel terms in a passage and lastly, five minutes to practicing blends).
Segregate targeted proficiencies (for instance, letter sound/speech identification) into small components/units (for instance, sounding out individual letter sounds/speech in words).
Divide or create components (for instance, sound out individual phonemes within words, and subsequently combine sounds together).
Guide students to glance at matter before teaching.
Guide students to concentrate on specific facts.
Offer pupils task-related information beforehand.
Openly communicate instruction goals to pupils.
Improving Word Recognition Skills (Stanberry & Swanson, 2016)
2. Improving Reading Comprehension
Program Activities and Techniques*
Urge pupils to pose questions.
Educators and pupils:
Control task demand-processing issues
Offer support as required.
Offer a simple demonstration.
Sequence activities from simple to tough.
Put simple concepts/steps forward first and later proceed to tougher concepts/stages (i.e., task analysis).
Help pupils control difficulty levels.
Short activities are used.
Offer pupils added facts or explanations regarding concepts, methods or stages.
Employ redundant/repetitive text.
Modeling educator steps
Educators demonstrate steps/procedures for pupils to follow.
Verbal discussion or teaching occurs in small pupil-educator groups.
Remind pupils to employ several steps or tactics.
Elucidate problem-solving processes/steps.
Utilize “think aloud” teaching models.
Enumerate the advantages of process/strategy application.
Improving Reading Comprehension (Stanberry & Swanson, 2016)
Assessing Children’s Reading Program
Well-resourced with research-supported teaching guidelines for reading-disabled children, educators can even adopt novel reading programs (Stanberry & Swanson, 2016), which may be evaluated using the steps listed below:
1. Seeking comprehensive literature on reading programs employed.
1. Locating instructions and noting program pros and cons.
1. Ascertaining if instruction models employed involve direct or strategic or combined instruction. A few programs’ literature outlines the approach to be adopted whilst others leave it to educators to choose.
1. Evaluation of the reading program might lead to satisfaction or dissatisfaction with it; in the latter case, parents, educators and Individualized Education Programteam members may discuss concerns and recommend alternatives.
Observations from Class Notes:
Students effectively expressed their views and accepted others’ views, understood novel terms and employed them. They require more time for comfortable application of novel words and feel certain meanings require particular words for communicating their precise meaning.
Students engaged in and shared their views of vocabulary terms, conversing enthusiastically with one another, collecting images, meanings, and web-based games for drawing and repeating novel terms, combining them and justifying their suitability/unsuitability to the context.
Students reviewed vocabulary terms, employing the “call-response” technique explicitly and fluently, emphasized meaning, sound qualities and tone, and indicated tricky vowels/consonants in each word for effective pronunciation of phonemes without affecting fluency and pronunciation quality.
Students reiterate and recapthe day’s lesson. This brief, valuable activity seeks their spontaneous, rigorous participation, giving them hardly any time to curtail expression.
Interactive Reading Sessions
Students can match simultaneously-presented imagery and verbal facts, which can improve text understanding by means of improved event comprehension and sound-verbal matter encoding. Researchers prove that kids naturally attempt to match images and verbal facts. This listening-plus-viewing of story events supports close sequential image-word contiguity (Bus, Takacs, & Kegal, 2015).
Interactive tales greatly and positively impact text comprehension and vocabulary acquisition compared with more conventional presentations. Multimedia-interactivity or interactive-only tales showed no significant difference from non-technological conditions of comparison. Presence or absence of static illustrations within comparison condition wasn’t a major moderator, and multimedia-only tales had appreciable benefits over ordinary print books (this includes static illustrations). Therefore, multimedia-enhanced tales’ benefit wasn’t because of added illustrations but, rather, features which may only be recognized using sound, music, animated images and other multimedia (Takacs, Swart, & Bus, 2015).
While insignificant, disadvantaged kids were typically more diverted by interactive aspects compared to normal kids, indicating an interactivity-related drawback for disadvantaged kids only. To elaborate, in case of disadvantaged kids, the distinction between interactive-multimedia and multimedia stories’ impacts on story understanding was virtually one whole point; on the other hand, in case of normally-developing kids, a significant difference was observed. Continuous task-switching (i.e., understanding the tales and examining hotpots and games) may overburden students’ memory, reducing their performance levels for both tasks. In specific, it may lead to lower vocabulary acquisition and story comprehension (Takacs, Swart, & Bus, 2015).
A large number of secondary and elementary pupils face word reading difficulties. Fortunately, a sound research pool assesses efficient word-reading training strategies for such pupils. In case of kids suffering from acute word reading issues, interventions might be challenging as well as need extensive resources (e.g. everyday targeted small-group interventions across several years). Considering the impacts of ongoing reading failure for pupils as well as society, the resources and efforts required are justified. Applying research-defined tools and strategies might make a lasting difference for numerous pupils (Otaiba & Denton, 2015).
Born, M., & Curtis, R. (2013). (Re)Discovering Retrospective Miscue Analysis: An Action Research Exploration using Recorded Readings to Improve Third-grade Students Reading Fluency. i.e.: inquiry in education.
Bus, A., Takacs, Z., & Kegal, C. (2015). Affordances and limitations of electronic storybooks for young children’s emergent literacy. Developmental Review – Elsevier, 79-97.
Connor, C., Alberto, P., Compton, D., & O’Connor, R. (2014). Improving Reading Outcomes for Students with or at Risk for Reading Disabilities. Natioanl Center for Special Education Research – U.S. Department of Education.
Hamilton, S., & Glascoe, F. (2016). Evaluation of Children with Reading Difficulties. Retrieved from American Familyt Pysician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1215/p2079.html
Otaiba, S., & Denton, C. (2015). Teaching Word Identification to Students with Reading Difficulties and Disabilities. Focus Except Child.
Pritima, R., Takala, M., & Ladonlahati, T. (2015). Students in Higher Education with Reading and Writing Difficulties. Education Inquiry.
Stanberry, K., & Swanson, L. (2016). Effective Reading Interventions for Kids with Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from Reading Rockets: http://www.readingrockets.org/article/effective-reading-interventions-kids-learning-disabilities
Takacs, Z., Swart, E., & Bus, A. (2015). Benefits and Pitfalls of Multimedia and Interactive Features in Technology-Enhanced Storybooks. Review of Education Research, 698-739.
University of Oregon. (2016). Big Ideas in Beginning Reading. Retrieved from University of Oregon – Center on Teaching and learning: http://reading.uoregon.edu/big_ideas/
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