Posted: March 30th, 2022

Integration and Synthesis of Theory and Research

Knowledge, Integration and Synthesis of Theory and Research


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This paper will focus on the theories applied to analysis of school advisory program specializations.


School advisory programs aim to serve various purposes that include providing the environment and time to develop meaningful teacher-student relationships, promoting students’ emotional, moral, and social development, and providing academic and personal guidance chiefly. The programs need to be organized effectively, encompass relevant content, and have a suitable leader. Periodic program assessment is also important. This paper will compare and contrast three theoretical approaches in the area of advisory program implementation, followed by taking up one approach — promotion of care via advisory programs — for discussion. It will also address controversies in connection with such programs, and recommend solutions to challenges.


Theories applicable to School Advisory Program Specialization


Dimension 1: Purpose


One of the chief purposes of school advisory initiatives is: providing the environment and time to cultivate significant teacher-student (advisor-student) relationships. The school community’s vision, regarding what it aspires to achieve via the program constitutes a key philosophical reaction to the expression of needs. Goal identification and communication will serve program planners in technical as well as philosophical sense. Verbalized focus goals offer broad referents for program planning as well as its further stages. Advisory groups endeavor to guide students academically and personally, as well as promote their moral, social, and emotional development (Osofsky et al., 2003).


Dimension 2: Organization


Irrespective of the program’s design and frequency, what occurs within the advisory group needs to be;


1. Planned, for reflecting students’ developmental needs


1. Scheduled, for allowing teachers and students to know what they need to anticipate, and when.


1. Practicable and appropriate, in line with the school’s distinctive philosophy


1. Endorsed by faculty and administrative staff such that the program indeed becomes a team endeavor among school staff, rather than a pet project of a few staff members (Osofsky et al., 2003).


Dimension 3: Content


Almost all schools adopt a thematic approach when it comes to the organization of advisory topics. These topics may be categorized into: personal, which includes self-esteem, wellness, violence prevention, friendship, disabilities and abilities, etc.; career, which covers service learning, citizenship, volunteering, career planning, community / future planning, etc.; and educational, which encompasses knowing one’s school, teamwork, goals, test-taking competencies, learning styles, etc. Some typical types of activities that promote relationship-building within advisory programs are school concerns, instructional concerns, career education and students’ personal concerns (Osofsky et al., 2003).


Dimension 4: Assessment


Regular official program assessment will prove valuable. Questionnaires for gleaning information from teachers, students, parents, and other stakeholders regarding outcomes and expectations can reveal the extent of program effectiveness. The basis of such surveys must be program objectives and goals, worded with regard to students’ behavioral outcomes. Other school climate measures, like vandalism, teacher and student attendance, teacher and student transfer rates, truancy, severity and frequency of discipline issues, learning evidence, attendance at activities sponsored by the school, as well as how the community, students, and parents view the school helps indicate whether students feel they feel valued by the school (Osofsky et al., 2003).


Dimension 5: Leadership


According to respondents of a study on advisory programs, the driver for advisory programs was mix of groups or individuals in various configurations. Nevertheless, all schools had somebody or some group that was entrusted with responsibility for program implementation and supervision. These individuals/groups most frequently comprised of the advisory/planning committee, counselor(s), the principal, advisory teachers, etc. Numerous advisory program advocates have emphasized the significance of staff development and comprehensive planning before as well as in the course of advisory program implementation (Osofsky et al., 2003).


II. Literature Review


1.Theoretical Approaches in Implementing Advisory Programs


a. Propagating small schools


Research in the area has identified five key advisory program goals, with multiple goals identified by a number of studies, including:


Development of strong interpersonal relationships between school faculty and students


Educational support to the school’s students


Curriculum enrichment


Development of school culture and Several popular models of school reform clearly encourage integration of or actually integrate advisory systems into models for high schools. For example, in a number of schools adopting the common “Coalition of Essential Schools” principle — a nationwide movement for school reform — advisory is regarded as the main mechanism to ensure individual students are “well-acquainted” with one or more adult faculty members of the school. New York’s reform efforts at the high school level (e.g., “New Visions for New Schools”-sponsored initiatives) have incorporated advisory into their models for thriving small schools, as well. According to the ISA (Institute for Student Achievement), advisory, together with student problems-focused team meetings and other such measures, denotes a promising means of distributed counseling implementation (Tocci et al., 2005).


b. Promoting Care through Advisory Programs


Middle school advisory programs are entirely different from the usual school advisory methods. Traditionally, the concept of school advising has been adopted most commonly among high schools, using certified counselors, rather than certified teachers. Traditional counselors’ role is: meeting individually with students and aiding them with class scheduling, high school-college-job transition, and providing guidance and intervention. Normally, counselors’ caseload comprises of over a hundred students, assigned to them alphabetically or randomly. Also, typically, high school pupils have a periodic meeting (one meeting per semester is the usual custom) with their respective counselor, unless a student has any additional need to be addressed. Advisory programs’ aim is directly dealing with transescent students’ affective needs. Activities can range from informal interactions to application of systematically created units having their organizing centers drawn from transescents’ common needs, problems, concerns or interests (e.g., getting on with fellow students, acquiring a positive self-concept, living while at school, etc. In an ideal advisory program, a transescent will be able to become closely acquainted with one adult faculty member, who will aid him/her in understanding how he/she can be a wholesome individual and in finding a sense of security at school (Stawick, 2011).


c. Realistic Expectations all schools have their own unique arrangements and plans, hence their expectations need to be clear. For example, an advisor must be aware of:


How frequently he/she is required to hold meetings with each student;


How students are to be gathered;


How to receive information on each student;


How frequently they ought to meet with students’ parents personally or converse with them over the phone; and What is their role in student-related aspects like discipline and scheduling?


Expectations have to be practical and comprehensively understandable by advisors. A number of advisors decide to work far beyond these basic expectations; however, no advisor should be pressurized into doing more than is expected of them. The fact that advisory program plans must result from thoughtful discussion by staff is very important. A teacher-dominated committee will probably formulate the ultimate plan, which gains the approval of the administrative team as well as the major percentage of staff members. This plan, perhaps, will, reflect teachers’ needs, contract, and culture within a given school district or school. Advisory systems generally fit teacher contract parameters. However, as late Albert Shanker, a former union leader predicted, several teacher groups, when required, devise special arrangements, if they perceive any value for pupils, and if such a special dispensation is not in serious violation of teachers’ contract. Shanker was right in his belief that teachers like responsible change; they will thus work, and collaborate with administrators and educational boards for providing creative or special circumstances for the initiatives that are important to them. A student advisory form will offer school staff information useful in assisting students. The forms need to be clearly explained for advisors to be able to come up with answers for the following questions: For what purpose has the form been handed out? How do staff members complete it? What are advisors required to do with completed forms? A majority of advisory forms will be easy to understand as well as fill out. The difficulty lies in what receivers and advisors are required to do write (Goldberg, 1998).


2. Promoting Care through Advisory Programs


Case Study 1: Rosa International Middle School, Cherry Hill — New Jersey


This New Jersey school, with its framework of a global baccalaureate curriculum highlighting global tolerance and responsibility and a student advisory program offering avenues for service and leadership to all students, teaches it students to care. Students portray this ‘care’ using an assortment of service education ventures. The school’s aim is being a caring, spirited family for every student. Every child starts his/her school day with an Advisory session in which students get acquainted with one another while discussing issues and planning service projects. For creating a family atmosphere on campus, this school with more than 600 pupils has broken down grade levels into individual “Learning Communities,” which represent educator teams that are in charge of particular groups of students, and who collaborate with them for fulfilling students’ unique needs. The school’s culture emphasizes acceptance and caring, on campus as well as outside, in the real world (Framework for School Success, 2015).


Case Study 2: Francis Howell Middle School, St. Charles — Missouri


This school intentionally restructured its school day for accommodating Character Connection sessions, where students meet every day for a period of 20 minutes, and follow class-meeting protocols. In the course of these advisory sessions, student groups (which consisted of students from different grades) helped each other with grasping, internalizing, and practicing core values. Group activities include peer tutoring, writing character objectives, discussing current events and school problems, and assisting or praising certain accomplishments by groups at school. For instance, students of this school have engaged in cleaning buses, buying cake for cafeteria staff, cleaning halls for custodians and allowing them some time-off, with hot chocolate as a treat, and making nametags for individuals in the support staff (Framework for School Success, 2015).


Advisor — A Student’s Advocate


According to Stawick (2011), most student guidance aspects are covered by advisory programs in certain middle schools, wherein small student groups are placed under the care of advisors’, who are teachers, rather than counselors, with training in early-teenager characteristics, advising, and middle-level pupil education. Advisors play the role of student advocates, and have more knowledge compared to other adult staff members regarding individual students’ academic progress, social and intellectual fortes and weak points, relationships, home life, etc. Consequently, advisors are able to guide students, and recommend to other teachers the approaches that work best with each student. Further, advisors can most efficiently refer students to suitable interventions, in addition to ascertaining if students would be benefited by contacting an administrator, social work, or any other intervention. Moreover, advisors are best-equipped to act as the “point persons” for students’ home relationships. As advisors are best-informed, they will be able to have highly meaningful conversations and discussions with a child’s parents, and also know how best to involve parents in their children’s education. Advisors are also in a position to make recommendations with regard to families’ potential roles in helping their children with studies/learning at home (e.g., homework help) (Stawick, 2011).


Strong advisors know and care about their advisees


Organizing students into focus groups under advisory programs will allow them to voice their thoughts, feelings, needs, etc., and will allow advisors to show students they care. According to students in one focus group study (with students from three different schools), advisors were well-acquainted with them and posed individualized questions to them, concerning their personal and social lives, by mentioning events and subjects like a basketball match, a favorite family snack bar or doughnut corner, or a weekend event. Interestingly, participants from each school employed terms like ‘care’ and ‘notice’ while describing their respective advisors. When questioned about what they think are the traits of an ideal advisor, one of the participants remarked that the best advisor would notice a student enough to know when he/she was having a rough day. Further, participants also stated that their respective advisors could swiftly spot if a student was facing tough times. Another student remarked that that their advisor could actually sometimes sense whether a student was upset, and would ask the student in question if things were alright with him/her and would initiate conversation with the apparently-troubled student. In advisees’ opinion, advisors are familiar with, and acknowledge, students’ unique personalities. Lastly, students from each school felt their school had intentionally matched them with advisors or the advisor had deliberately chosen them.


According to Foote and Shulkind (2009) study, advisors assert that noticing students and caring for and about them was a chief aspiration of theirs. Over 50% of the school advisors interviewed stated that a key goal of their school advisory program was getting to know children well. According to one advisor, this will aid professionals in the field in acquiring enough perception to be able to find a way to reach out to students. Advisors reaffirmed this goal of really knowing children and typically mentioned ‘checking on’, ‘caring about’, ‘connecting with’, and ‘watching over’ pupils. They also spoke about how they approach students if they sense something is not right. This is in line with the previously-mentioned study finding, where students voiced their feeling that advisors notice if a child is not normative (Shulkind & Foote, 2009).


How can an advisory program help a school?


A young teen will require structured opportunities for developing his/her sense of responsibility, belonging, and independence. The presence of strong connections as well as the feeling that there are adults who really care for them and how they are feeling has the potential to make students avoid risk-taking, which might inhibit fulfillment of their life goals and dreams. Effective advisory programs are capable of significantly influencing individual students and the overall school atmosphere. Advisory program design processes are centered on the key goals and questions that follow:


(1) Development of a common vision pertaining to program goals, purpose, and outcomes;


(2) Frequency and scheduling;


(3) Grouping and size;


(4) Advisory content and curriculum;


(5) Advisory roles;


(6) Assessment;


(7) Support and training for advisory program heads and advisors; and,


(8) Creation of meaningful “links” between advisory activities and goals, as well as other academic or school-wide targets (Center for Social and Emotional Education, n.d).


Ensuring a healthy overall development


School advisory programs foster healthy student growth, facilitate academic success of students, and offer various opportunities for bridging the gap between academic success and healthy development. These programs help make sure every student has an adult at school with whom he/she is well-acquainted. Advisory facilitates creation of stronger bonds between youngsters, often cutting across exclusionary groups typical of schools. It represents the “security blanket” for addressing teenagers’ concerns and offers the perfect setting for the teaching and practicing of key life skills. An advisory will encourage expression of student opinions on general school issues. Lastly, it establishes an advisement, educational, career, and college-related coaching forum, cutting across individual subject areas. To put it briefly, advisory programs foster student achievement as well as their healthy growth directly via monitoring, instruction, and coaching, and indirectly by means of increasing students’ attachment to their schools (Poliner and Lieber, 2003).


Encouraging Adolescent Development


Experts in school reform have recommended advisory programs for many years, as great opportunities for school students to get in touch with caring adults. The Carnegie adolescent development council, 1989, stated that every child ought to have a chance to depend on adults for helping them with understanding physical changes, understanding their relationships with friends, family, and acquaintances, and learning from personal experiences. This adult should be charged with acting on students’ behalf and being a resource necessary for student success. Hence, the CSEE (Center for Social and Emotional Education) feels students with a powerful connection and the belief that an adult care for them will more likely avoid the kinds of behaviors that will thwart their success. A school advisory program can profoundly affect both individual students and the overall school climate. Federal legislation has influenced nation-wide efforts towards school reform, leading to pressures for standardized achievement score improvement. The NCLB (No Child Left Behind) Federal government Act of 2001 has driven numerous school staff members to ignore children’s holistic emotional and social needs, on account of budgetary or time constraints; their emphasis has, instead, been students’ academic or cognitive success. The Carnegie adolescent development council indicated that an explosive mismatch existed between middle school curricula and organization, and young teens’ emotional and intellectual needs (Gilpin, 2013).


III. Discussion


Controversies related to school advisory program


In spite of advisory programs’ valuable aim and the great benefits attached to its success, mixed feelings and considerable controversies exist with regard to its adoption in schools.




Teachers usually accept the fact that advisory programs are beneficial; however, numerous teachers have their reservations and might not wish to assume an advisory role. The findings of Myrick and Myrick’s research revealed that 20% of teachers studied welcomed the program, 20% were clearly opposed to it, and 60% struggled with some key problems. Van Hoose (1991) cited seven reasons for the non-popularity of advisory programs among teachers:


1. Parents are unable to understand the advisory concept and a number of them may be against it.


1. Several administrators do not really show much interest in advisory programs.


1. A majority of teachers do not possess the requisite formal preparation to serve as a school advisor.


1. Teachers are unable to understand program goals.


1. Advisory is a time-consuming undertaking and a large number of teachers felt this time would be invested better elsewhere.


1. A few teachers are not keen on participating in an initiative that entails personal sharing.


1. If an advisory program commences with not much leadership and staff development, teachers fail to receive positive student feedback.


Several schools discovered their expectations from the program to be impractical. Consequently, programs were usually altered or abandoned after implementation such that advisory no longer remained a suitable description of this time devoted by teachers to student groups. Programs that are not meticulously planned and executed are most likely to end in failure. Advisory experts caution that meticulous advisor preparation and program planning form the key to program success. Failure to convey program objectives clearly and to achieve wholehearted teacher acceptance are, perhaps, the greatest reasons behind failure (Weiss, 2006).


Variability in Advisory Periods


Advisory Periods vary considerably in length for different schools. In an analysis into school advisory periods, six schools reported a less-than-12-minute advisory session length; thirteen reported having advisory periods of 20-25 minutes’ duration; seven reported having periods lasting between 30 and 35 minutes; four had periods lasting 40-45 minutes, and only four had at least 50-minute-long advisory periods. This variability constitutes a major challenge when it comes to curriculum development. It was decided to have 20-minute period targets, with schools having longer periods potentially using two or more lesson plans, depending on the time they have. As the curriculum’s nature so strongly stresses discussions among student, the lessons must have some time flexibility. Nevertheless, it has been agreed that an advisory period of not even a quarter of an hour cannot effectively utilize any curriculum.


Lesson Plan variability was found to be greater compared to variability in lesson plan ratings. Thus, it appears sensible to draw separate conclusions regarding separate lesson plans. Some advisory lesson plans receive consistently higher rating than others do. Variables like teaching experience, preventing different forms of bullying, school role, and student gender, were not related significantly to lesson plan success. However, this was virtually because of overly low numbers, insufficient for the purpose of comparison (for instance, hardly any adult reported to playing a substitute teacher’s role, implying that statistically comparing this role to a regular teacher’s role would not be possible). In spite of these low numbers, overall, sufficient information exists to indicate roughly the lesson plans to be used (MARC, 2013).


IV. Recommendations


Gordon is of the view that advisory has transformed from a highly controversial program of Souhegan’s to becoming a fundamental dimension of school culture, largely due to the focused, actionable, and transparent school-level analyses conducted. He states that initial surveys suggested that students believed somebody knew them well, and with progressive implementation of some changes, they sensed the adult knew them better. Also, both advisors and parents are now more supportive of advisory.


Collaborative inquiry will especially benefit schools that develop advisory initiatives from scratch. When an Emeryville middle school closed down, students shifted to the Emery Secondary School. School coach, Mark Salinas, with the BayCES (Bay Area Coalition for Equitable Schools) assisted with the development of numerous elements in the new school’s design, including creating novel structures for promoting collaboration between adults; personalized student learning; and raising the achievement bar. Features included an advisory initiative, interdisciplinary educator teams, and small learning groups/communities. In this emerging environment, it was vital to conduct a formative assessment. Affected students were asked to fill out a survey on advisory curriculum twice during the first year, with advisors routinely working through a series of inquiries, prioritizing program objectives and evaluating their roles as leaders.


Salinas states that the team studied all available data and came up with an advisory plan related to established goals. Grade-level members of the team got together during the summer, used the survey information on student interests, and mapped it into the school’s advisory curriculum (Makkonen, 2004).


V. Conclusion


School advisory programs are intended for various purposes. Research in the area has identified five key advisory program goals. Nearly all schools adopt a thematic approach when it comes to the organization of advisory topics. Traditionally, the concept of school advising has been most commonly adopted among high schools, using certified counselors, rather than certified teachers. In an ideal advisory program, a transescent will be able to become closely acquainted with one adult faculty member, who will aid him/her in understanding how he/she can be a wholesome individual and in finding a sense of security at school. An advisor must be aware of how frequently he/she is required to hold meetings with each student; how students are to be gathered; how to receive information on each student; how frequently they ought to meet with students’ parents personally or converse with them over the phone; and what is their role in student-related aspects like discipline and scheduling.


Students believe their advisors can actually sometimes sense whether a student was upset, and would ask the student in question if things were alright with him/her and would initiate conversation with the apparently-troubled student. In advisees’ opinion, advisors are familiar with, and acknowledge, students’ unique personalities. Lastly, students from each school felt their school had intentionally matched them with advisors or had been deliberately chosen by the advisor. Meanwhile, advisors assert that noticing students and caring for and about them was their main aspiration. Despite advisory programs’ valuable aim and the great benefits attached to its success, mixed feelings and considerable controversies exist with regard to its adoption in schools. Numerous teachers have their reservations and might not wish to be given an advisory role. Also, several schools discovered their expectations from the program to be impractical. Consequently, programs were usually altered or abandoned after implementation; effectually time devoted by teachers to student groups in advisory capacity ceased to be a suitable description of the effort. Collaborative inquiry will especially benefit schools that develop advisory initiatives from scratch.




Center for Social and Emotional Education (n.d). Reaching Every Child: Developing a Middle


School Advisory Program. Extracted from


Framework for School Success (2015). ’11 Principles of Effective Character Education’.


Extracted from


Gilpin, Lara A. (2013). ‘Comparing Perceptions of Advisors and Students in Relationship to Behaviors Within a Middle School Advisory Program’. Graduate Department and Faculty of the School of Education of Baker University. Extracted from


Goldberg, Mark (1998). How to Design an Advisory System for a Secondary School. Alexandria,


VA, USA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development (ASCD), 1998. ProQuest ebrary. Web. May 2016.


Makkonen, Reino (2004). ‘Advisory Program Research and Evaluation’. Coalition of Essential


Schools. Extracted from


MARC (2013). ‘Advisory Curriculum Pilot Outcomes’. Research Report Massachusetts


Aggression Reduction Center, July 2013. Extracted from


Osofsky, Debbie; Gregg Sinner, Denise Wolk (2003). ‘The Power of Advisories’. The Education Alliance — Brown University


Poliner, Rachel A. & Carol M. Lieber (2003). ‘The Advisory Guide’. Educators for Social


Responsibility Cambridge, MA, 2003.


Sarah Brody Shulkind and Jack Foote (2009). ‘Creating a culture of connectedness through middle-school advisory programs’. Association for Middle Level Education. Extracted from


Stawick, Jeffrey (2011), ‘The Effects of an Advisory Program on Middle-Level Student


Learning’. College of Education. Paper 43. Extracted from


Tocci, Charles; Dalia Hochman, David Allen (2005). ‘Advisory Programs in High School


Restructuring’. American Education Research Association — April, 2005


Van Hoose, J. (1991). The ultimate goal: AA across the day. Midpoints, 2(1).


Weiss, E., (2006). A Middle School Teacher-Advisory Program Evaluation Using Teacher and Student Feedback. Retrieved [Date], from Portland State University, Counselor Education, School Counseling Specialization, School Counseling in Action, Intern Projects, 2006. Web site

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