Posted: March 18th, 2023

Impact of Hypertension on Health Care Cost

Hypertension II

Cost of Hypertension

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Impact of Hypertension on Health Care Cost
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

The economics of health care depends on a progressive decision process that allocates scarce resources, in a manner that achieves the best overall outcomes (Alcocer & Cueto, 2008, p. 147-149). This process is necessarily complicated and imperfect, and the desired result can be influenced by a number of social and political forces, including geographic boundaries, racial and economic disparities, and competing funding needs. To provide the best health care possible for a given funding level, policy makers will need to increasingly rely on evidence-based approaches to help them grasp the cost-effectiveness of specific treatments.

This cost-effectiveness calculation is complicated by conditions or diseases that contribute to the morbidity and mortality of other conditions. For example, hypertension is often recognized as a direct-contributing factor to diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease and aggressive hypertension treatment can’t always be assumed to be cost-effective (Author, 2012). The actual costs realized from aggressively treating hypertension was found to vary in the Western countries studied, from actual cost savings to costing as much as $100,000 dollars per life-years gained (LYG) (Alcocer & Cueto, 2008, p. 153). The variable with the biggest impact on cost-effectiveness was disease risk, with those at high risk gaining the most from treatment.

Such studies beg the question of how much should be spent per LYG? The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the cost-effectiveness cutoff for health care interventions should be triple the country’s per capita GDP (Alcocer & Cueto, 2008, p. 153). For the United States this would be U.S.$141,597 per LYG in 2011 (The World Bank, 2012). With a cutoff this high, it seems likely that additional advantages would be obtained by effectively treating the remaining 50% of the U.S. population that does not have its blood pressure under control (reviewed by Trogdon, Allaire, Egan, Lackland, & Masters, 2011).

The Higher the Risk, the Bigger the Benefit

A recent study in Greece examined the cost-effectiveness of treating adults based on their smoking status (Athanasakis, Souliotis, Tountas, Kyriopoulos & Hatzakis, 2011). A total of 1,453 patients completed follow up, of which 47% were male and the overall median age was 59.5 ±9.9 years. Treatment lowered systolic blood pressure an average of 32.0 and 34.7 mmHg for men and women, respectively. The gain in quality adjusted life years were 0.84 and 0.57 per patient for male smokers and nonsmokers, and 0.84 and 0.4 for female smokers and nonsmokers, respectively. Smokers, or high risk patients, were thus more likely to benefit from hypertension treatment.

These results were based how effective treatment was in lowering the relative rates of adverse events. Nonfatal cardiovascular events and death were lowered by 132 and 115 per 1000 patients for male smokers, 112 and 107 for male nonsmokers, 119 and 111 for female smokers, and 91 and 81 for female nonsmokers, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios per patient for these patient groups were found to be 3,539, 3,986, 3,957, and 5,485 Euros, respectively. With a WHO intervention cutoff of approximately 60,600 Euros based on Greece’s 2011 gross domestic product (The World Bank, 2012), treating hypertension is easily justified.

Modeling Macroeconomic Cost-Effectiveness

The cost-effectiveness of hypertension treatment not only concerns the benefits realized by individual patients, but economies as a whole (Alcocer & Cueto, 2008). A recent modeling study suggested that a mere 1% reduction in cardiovascular events would save the equivalent of about one U.S. dollar per capita annually in England and Wales (Barton, Andronis, Briggs, McPherson & Capewell, 2011). In the U.S., this would translate into a health care expenditure savings of about $310 million dollars per year. In addition, the modeling study predicted a 5% reduction in hypertension would essentially triple the per capita health care savings realized, or almost a billion dollars annually.


As health care costs continue to climb, the social and political will to base policy decisions on empirical studies of treatment cost-effectiveness should increase. Based on the studies presented here and elsewhere (Author, 2012), the predicted result of this paradigm shift would be an increase in the overall health of both individuals and the economy as inefficiencies in the system are pruned away.


Alcocer, L. & Cueto, L. (2008). Hypertension, a health economics perspective. Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease, 2, 147-155. doi: 10.1177/1753944708090572.

Athanasakis, K., Souliotis, K., Tountas, Y., Kyriopoulos, J. & Hatzakis, A. (2011). A cost-utility analysis of hypertension treatment in Greece: Assessing the impact of age, sex and smoking status on outcomes. Journal of Hypertension, 30, 227-234. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32834d9f18.

Author, J.B. (2012). The cost of hypertension.

Barton, P., Andronis, L., Briggs, A., McPherson, K. & Capewell, S. (2011). Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of cardiovascular disease prevention in whole populations: Modeling study. British Medical Journal, 343, 1-10. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d4044.

The World Bank. (2012). GDP per capita (current U.S.$). Retrieved 2 Feb. 2012 from

Trogdon, J.G., Allaire, B.T., Egan, B.M., Lackland, D.T. & Masters, D. (2011). Training providers in hypertension guidelines: Cost-effectiveness evaluation of a continuing medical education program in South Carolina. American Heart Journal, 162, 786-793. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2011.06.022.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.