Posted: May 25th, 2022
COLON CANCER CASE STUDY
Colon cancer is popular as rectal or bowel cancer. The condition refers to cancer development of rectum or colon throughout the large intestine. The cancer is caused by abnormal increase of cells with an ability of invading or spreading to subsequent body parts. Symptoms and signs of the cancer include blood in human stool, weight loss, changes in bowel movements, and continuously feeling tired (Young, Hobbs & Kerr, 2011).
The colorectal cancers are formulated based on increasing age and lifestyle factors. A small percentage of the cases result from inherited genetic disorders. Alternate risk factors are inclusive of obesity, diet, smoking, and lack of physical activity. Peterson (2014) shows that alternative forms of dietary factors that cause an increment of risks involve processed and red meat alongside heavy drinking of alcohol. Inflammatory bowel disease is another risk factor that involves ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Such inherited conditions causing colorectal cancer evolve from hereditary non-polyposis and familial adenomatous polyposis colon cancer (Peterson, 2014). However, the components represent close to 5% of related cases. The approach is typical for benign tumors that form polyps that translate into cancerous cells.
Young, Hobbs and Kerr (2011) identified that colon cancer is diagnosed through acquisition of samples from the colon during colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. The alternative includes medical imaging for purposes of determining whether the disease spreads continuously. Screening offers an effective technique when decreasing chances of death due to colorectal cancer. The approach is recommended from the ages of 50 to 75 years (Young, Hobbs & Kerr, 2011). The process of colonoscopy polyps can be reduced. Aspirin coupled with other forms of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication lower the possibilities of such risks. The extensive application can be recommended for the purpose of healing even though it has a wide array of side effects.
The colorectal cancer signs and symptoms depend on location of tumors within a bowel and if it spreads across the body through metastasis. Classical warning signs of the cancer include increased constipation, blood spots in stool, lower stool thickness caliber, weight loss, loss of appetite, and nausea in elderly people (Peterson, 2014). Even as rectal anemia or bleeding cause high-risk features for people aged over 50 years, alternate symptoms of bowel habit changes and weight loss have a typical concern associated with bleeding.
Colorectal cancer diagnosis is made through sampling areas in suspicious colon segments to establish possible tumor development. The typical components include sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy based on the lesion’s location. Acton (2013) argued that the scope of disease could be established through CT scans on human abdomen, pelvis, and chest. The potential imaging tests including MRI and PET are used in certain extreme cases. Staging of colon cancer is achieved through basing inclusion on TNM systems and determining how the initial tumors spread (Acton, 2013). The lymph nodes have more involvement in establishing the developments of metastatic disease.
The colorectal cancer treatment is geared towards palliation or a cure. The medical decision, the goal to adopt, is based on distinct factors such as the person’s preferences and health coupled with the level of tumor’s advancement. While colorectal cancer is established at an early stage, surgery becomes curative (Acton, 2013). Microscopic cellular characteristics for a given tumor usually report the tissue analysis taken through surgery or biopsy. The pathology report usually contains cell grade and type descriptions. On the other hand, the detection allows for later stages in which the metastases processes are presented. The diversity of options offers less likelihood of treatment that is directed towards palliation and relieving symptoms of the tumor. The concept also keeps such persons in comfortable situations. Preliminary evidence points at lactic acid bacteria such as lactobacilli, lactococci or streptococci causing overly protective tendencies against the progression and development of colorectal cancer. The basis of interaction involves mechanisms of anti-proliferative effects, antioxidant activity, immuno-modulation, promotion of programmed cell death, and cancer cell epigenetic modification.
Acton, Q.A., (2013). Colon Cancer: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013. New York: Scholarly Editions.
Peterson, E., (2014). The Colon Cancer. New York: Sea Salt.
Young, A., Hobbs, R., & Kerr, D., (2011). ABC of Colorectal Cancer. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
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