Posted: March 18th, 2023

Formulation of problematic health concerns

Chest Pain Case Study

The presenting patient in the present case scenario is Mr. Hay, an 82-year-old male with an existing diagnosis of Cardiac Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). This existing diagnosis will prove relevant in a care plan for Mr. Hay, who has been admitted following a loss of consciousness. Having been discovered by a neighbor after some sustained period of unconsciousness, Mr. Hay would be admitted with an array of treatment issues. The three most pressing would prove to be the patient’s Activity Intolerance, his Ineffective Airway Clearance and his Pain management. The discussion here below considers these treatment challenges.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Formulation of problematic health concerns
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

Patient Problem 1: Activity intolerance

In any case where an elderly patient is admitted to the hospital, sedentary conditions can lead to an exacerbation of existing illness or to the formulation of new and problematic health concerns. This is especially true for the patient for whom excessive activity may produce negative health consequences as well. This is the case for the Mr. Hay, whose vital signs demonstrate the need for light but regular activity engagement.

For Mr. Hay, several factors are responsible for his activity intolerance and must therefore be accounted for even in the stimulation of activity. First, the fall caused by the patient’s loss of consciousness has produced injuries to hip, ankle and shoulder. These injuries are likely to be an obstruction in the patient’s attendance of daily physical engagement.

Additionally, the symptoms of Mr. Hay’s COPD present a distinct challenge to ambulatory behavior. Shortness of breath, to be addressed in greater detail in the section below, may lead to dizziness, fatigue or disorientation and must therefore be monitored closely during the engagement of physical activity. Likewise, all evidence points to a mounting cardiac issue — in all probability related to the existing COPD diagnosis — that must itself be managed with care. Any physical activity must be offset by recognition of the patient’s immediate cardiac state. The patient’s heart-rate is recorded at 106 beats per minute (BPM). This is high relative to the normal rate of 60 to 100 BPM. This is consistent with MRIs showing the patient’s moderately enlarged heart and a blood pressure reading placing the patient in the hyptertension risk index with a reading of 160 over 95.

These conditions collectively produce an intolerance to physical activity that must be managed and overcome in order to protect the patient from the danger of physical decline that may accompany hospitalization. The condition calls for assisted, light physical ambulation several times a day with constant monitoring of vital signs for indications of over-stimulation.

Patient Problem 2: Airway clearance, ineffective

The second problem of pressing importance is the patient’s airway clearance difficulties. Here, a range of presenting symptoms suggest a worsening of Mr. Hay’s COPD. The patient has experienced and, at the time of admission, continued to experience, respiratory difficulty. The patient’s pursed lips and shallow breath suggest that he is struggling to breathe without assistance. Having performed medication reconciliation, caregivers have determined that the subject is already taking antibiotics for treatment of this condition. However, the progressive nature of COPD denotes that the subject’s breathing difficulties are accelerating even with the administration of medication.

This is likely the leading cause of the patient’s loss of consciousness and denotes a pressing health problem. At the point of presenting, it is incumbent upon caregivers to provide the patient with breathing assistance. According to the text by Sanders (2011), the Venturi Mask is likely to be the most appropriate assistive device in this process. Sanders indicates that this particular apparatus is “advised for patients who rely on hypoxic respiratory drive. This includes, for example, patients with COPD. The main benefit of the Venturi Mask is that it allows precise regulation of the FiO2. It also permits the paramedic to titrate oxygen for the patient with COPD so as not to exceed the patient’s hypoxic drive while allowing enrichment of supplemental oxygen.” (Sanders, p. 422)

In addition the Venturi Mask which can help to normalize pulmonary activity, the patient is also experiencing a productive cough with thick yellow sputum. The presence of excessive mucus is also likely contributing to Mr. Hay’s airway blockages. This would be an appropriate place to use the Yankeur sucker in order to help remove fluids that might be making it more difficult for the patient to breathe independently.

Patient Problem 3: Pain

Also of critical importance once the patient’s vital signs and breathing have been stabilized is the management of pain. This is especially pressing in an older patient with indicators of high blood pressure and other abnormal cardiac abnormalities. Excessive pain may stress the subject’s body and lead to an intensification of other more troubling symptoms.

Two particular sources of pain require management and attention. First and foremost, the subject’s chest pain must be reduced so as to improve the patient’s comfort and lower the risk that this could mount into a more pressing issue of patient distress and its attendant possibility of true cardiac arrest. In this case, the recommended course of treatment is a Vasodilator. Provided that no conflict can be determined between existing prescriptions such as the COPD antibiotic, and provided that no patient allergies exist, Sanders provides a rationale for this approach as a way of diminishing chest pain symptoms. As a valuable side-effect, the properly selected Vasodilator may also reduce the patient’s demonstrated proclivity for high blood pressure. According to the text by Sanders, “in addition to their use as antihypertensives, some vasodilator drugs work to treat angina pectoris (ischemic chest pain). For example, nitrates dilate veins and arteries….the subsequent decrease in wall tension helps to reduce myocardial oxygen demand and also relieves the chest pain of myocardial ischemia.” (Sanders, p. 314)

Also necessary for pain management is treatment of pressure injuries produced by the subject’s fall and unconsciousness. This should include x-rays of the sited points of the hip, ankle and shoulder, proper stabilization of impacted points and the prescription of an anti-inflammatory presuming, once again, that no drug conflicts or allergies can be determined.


The three patient problems and treatment strategies outlined above should also be used to issue the patient a comprehensive plan for follow-up treatment and self-care following discharge.

Works Cited:

Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council. (2006). National competency standards for the midwife. Retrieved from:

Ambulance Victoria. (2012). Ambulance Victoria clinical practice guidelines for ambulance and MICA paramedics. Retrieved from:

Courtney, M. (2005). Evidence for nursing practice. Marrickville NSW: Livingstone Churchill Elsevier. Page 19 of 24.

Johnson, R. & Taylor, W. (2010). Skills for midwifery practice (3rd ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier.

Sanders, M.J. (ed.) (2011). Mosby’s paramedic practice (4th ed.).St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.