Posted: May 25th, 2022

Efficiency of hospital management process

Systems Media Table: Comparison


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Word processor

The main purpose of this program is to construct sentences of the perceived information and manipulate paragraphs to form a word document. The program uses a display format ‘what-you-see-is-what-you-get’ to enhance the quality of the expected hardcopy.

WordPerfect and Microsoft Word are mostly superseded by both organization and personal computers to perform functions such as word formatting, letter processing and some simple designing. Accordingly, it is the most frequently used program in day-to-day operation.

It is used to type the text, save, and format and print the text.

It is used to insert pictures into the text page.

It is used to spell check the text document.

It is used to prepare letters and other word documents.

Hierarchical database

This kind of database system is to display a structure that would relieve the presentation of information using parent to child relationship. The system is anticipated to store groups of parent/child relationships similar to a tree structure.

Meltz, Long, Harrington, Hain, & Nicholls (2004) confirmed that hospitals uses hierarchy database to find out the reporting structure in the organization. For that reason, employee information could be stored in a table that contains attributes/columns as employee number, first name, last name, and Department number. The organization provides each employee with computer hardware as needed, but computer equipment may only be used by the employee to which it is assigned.

It is used to group records in a logical hierarchy.

It connects all stored records to an organizational chart for easier interpretation.

It retrieves data by using the preferred primary record as instructed by the user.

Flat database

Flat database is anticipated to typically ensure that the data is only readable by the intended user. Accordingly, the perceived data is expected to be in compliance to application code logic associated with the database.

The typical examples of flat database are contact lists in a mobile phone and the storage of a high-scores list in a simple video game. In such cases, organizations use this system because there is no justifiable expense in integrating a complex database engine into the computing platform.

This application is used in commercial banks and other related institutions to remember the time of creation and link new account to an existing customer.

Object-oriented database

This system is expected to support the modeling and creation of object data. Generally speaking, it includes some kinds of objects and inheritances of class properties and methods by subclasses and their objects, verified by Zaqaibeh & Daoud (2008).

Many organizations use semantic information manager to support data model. In this case users can define entity types that can be inherited from one system to another. This system assist organization by extending object oriented programming language with database capabilities.

This system uses inheritance to determine attributes of records.

Stores and manages object information in the organization system.

This system executes many to many complex object data relationships and joins tables in readiness for presentation.

Stand alone information system

The main purpose of this system is to enhance efficiency of hospital management process, which includes scheduling appointments for patients and compiling their demographic details. According to European Commission DG Health and Consumer (2012) the system is also expected to prepare and maintain lists of those that are insured and the insurance agencies.

Typically, TiVo box used in sophisticated hospitals to record television programs is a standalone device. However, it allows hospital personnel a greater customization, whether it is a home theater or computer system. This system doesn’t require plug-ins or expansion packs for video but instead stands on it’s own.

Records all details regarding the patient such as name, address, age, date of birth, contact information and employer details.

It enables the staff to identify the exact nature of the appointments scheduled for the day.

It creates regular reports, which allow staff to monitor all areas of practice as may be required by the organization.

Hospital information system

This system is anticipated to support the process of patient management in order to provide better medical care. Generally speaking, it is to control patient admission, scheduled patient appointments, insurance and billing process.

Currently, web-based system becomes more important to share information between two or more hospitals. This system binds all caregivers to their desks and also provides them information when they need it most. Healthcare facilities in different geographic locations use this system to share relevant data.

It manages all hospital information to allow health care providers do their jobs effectively.

It primarily manages billing and hospital inventory.

It manages data related to the clinic, finance department, laboratory, nursing, pharmacy and also the radiology and pathology departments.

Specialty information system

This system is expected to support services such as planning, project management, database design, network administration, network engineering, systems integration and helpdesk support. It is purposely designed to enable businesses reduce costs and focus on core competencies.

Gulati & Taneja ( 2012) stated that organizations use this system to determine vendor relationship management, technical writing, business continuance, product development and systems programming in day-to-day operations.

Specialty information system receives instruction about network management applications and redirect to the intended user.

It performs routine maintenance activities or backup data, spy on intruding software, and maintains data communications over the network.

It focuses on protecting computer systems that contain sensitive data such as credit card numbers and other customer information.

Administrative information system

This system is intended to support the storage, retrieval and maintenance of information in the administration. It is to ensure safety of human resource management, financial accounting, research accounting, and supply of services.

University institutions, corporations and companies, use this kind of system to support efficiencies of their administrative services. In most cases it leads to high performance and accurate manipulation of their data.

This system is used to improve the security and accuracy of data storage.

It mitigates the transaction processing. In addition, it assists in data extraction and reporting or bulk transactional activities.

Operations support systems

The main purpose of this system is to provide outstanding integration of the tactical operational part, and the technical logistical part into one system. It is expected to offer a complete support for a flying platform.

Most military aircraft, research aircraft and some small commercial airplanes are equipped with this system, to allow pilots escape from damaged or malfunctioning airplanes. The aircraft egress and ejection are examples of this complex system.

This sophisticated system is used to assist multi-platform military groups before, during and after flight.

It provides the complete collection of data processing for the planning, and monitoring of tactical and technical operations.

Documentation system

It aims to provide guidance to any learner or system user in the selection of a particular application. This system is expected to be stored in a location and format that makes it easily accessible.

In organizations, most documentation system is used by system administrators and other technical people as an important reference. System documentation should provide sufficient technical detail.

It enables participants to acknowledge the work of another person. This can be done by following instructions that may lead to execution of a particular task or application deployed in the system.

It is used to track and store electronic guidance instructions.

Electronic medical record

Electronic medical record is intended to save and transfer electronic patient records gathered during treatment process. This system is anticipated to archive all kinds of documents and data related to a specific patient.

Currently, most hospitals uses image viewer with functionality for diagnosis based on digital images. In addition, add-ons of medication modules are installed to mitigate entry and retrieval of patient’s medical information.

Eysenbach, Powell, Gunter, & Terry, (2005) added that this system electronically replaces patient’s paper files where necessary.


The purpose of a spreadsheet is to enable organizations organize list of information into a column and rows for easy reading, interpretation and execution.

Organizations uses Zoho sheet to support macros and Pivot tables which are eventually used to expedite analysis. In addition, data can be imported and exported in Excel file format for ease of cooperation with employees in the organization.

It provides numerous tools for collecting and calculating data of all types.

It creates clear and concise reports that can be sorted and updated with the touch of a button.

It interprets accounting computations using graphic format and statistic charts.


According to Fesenko (2007) this system is to provide a concise summary, comparison and contrast of information that explains a particular record. It may vary in pattern from the simple to the complex depending upon its type, colour arrangement, and the amount of detail that it presents.

In hospitals, the chart is used to represent numerical data as well as material in abstract form. In addition tables are also used to amalgamate data that is arranged in such fashion. As a result, this simplifies their interpretation or makes possible their further delineation in chart or graph form.

Reduces file sizes due to the change of method of data organization.

Deliver organization data in summary or tabular fashion as per the requirement of the intended purpose.

Speed interpretation and enhance understanding of the basic data.

Decision aid

The target of decision aid is to assist patients become involved in decision making by providing information about the outcomes of their ailments. The tool is also expected to prepare patients to participate with their health care professionals in making personalized choices about health care options.

Currently, hospital personnel ask patients how much involvement in the decision they wish to have. Accordingly, patients are required to work out what is important to them using this tool as a way of improving their participation in decision making.

The decision aid is used to enable patients judge the value of the benefits vs. The harms in their treatment process. In addition, it also strengthens the confidentiality of hospital staff during their work which in turn reduces the risk of mistreatment. The tool decreases the proportion of people remaining undecided and improves agreement between values and choice, stated by AJ & al (2007).

Decision support system

The system is to make suggestions to hospital administrators and improve its future usefulness independently. Consequently, with the dual capabilities of integrating evaluations and data collection, the system is expected to assist administrators in discovering and resolving problems.

With the aid of decision support system, operational data of outpatients and inpatients especially the consent of their medical decisions is stored on computers. This results in much easier and faster data acquisition for hospital administrators.

This system is used to impart multidimensional and multilevel analyses, by using data warehousing techniques. As a result, the system generates appropriate advice to users by employing decision-making methodology. Most importantly, the system generates advice that is promptly updated to accord with changes in the medical industry.

Expert System

This system is intended to ensnare and analyze multiple results obtained from one patient by one or more IVD devices. Accordingly, this is done by means of in-vitro examination of body samples to provide information falling within the definition of an IVD medical device.

Software that integrates genotype of multiple genes to predict risk of developing a disease or medical condition.

-Software intended to be used in microbiology for the identification of clinical isolates and/or the detection of antimicrobial resistances.

Characterize viral resistances to various drugs, based on a nucleotide sequence generated by genotyping assays.

Generate current medical information from available information on the genotype of the virus from the patient.


AJ, W., & al, e. (2007). The role of decision aids in promoting evidence-based patient choice in Edwards A and Elwyn E (eds) Evidence-based patient choice:. O’Connor A and Edwards A.

European Commission DG Health and Consumer. (2012). Guidlines on the Qualification and Classification of Stand-alone Software used in Healthcare withing the Regulatory Framework of Medical Devices. Articles of Directive 93/42/EEC .

Eysenbach, G., Powell, J., Gunter, T.D., & Terry, N.P. (2005). The Emergence of National Electronic Health Record Architectures in the United States and Australia: Models, Costs, and Questions. Journal of Medical Internet Research: The Leading Peer-reviewed Internet Journal.

Fesenko, N. (2007). Compression Technologyes of Graphic Information. International Journal “Information Theories & Applications.”

Gulati, S., & Taneja, U. (2012). Specialty Hospitals Leveraging Information Systems For Greater Success. The Internet Journal of World Health and Societal Politics.

Meltz, DH, Long, R., Harrington, M., Hain, R., & Nicholls, G. (2004). Introduction to IMS, An: Your Complete Guide to IBM’s Information Management System. Califonia: IBM Press.

Zaqaibeh, B., & Daoud, E.A. (2008). The Constraints of Object-Oriented Databases. Int. J. Open Problems Compt. Math Journal, 1-7.

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