Posted: March 18th, 2023
Reply to Student #1
I agree with your statement that diagnosis is a process, not a destination. Too often diagnosis is regarded as giving the clinician a definite ‘end point,’ which means that although the initial diagnosis might be faulty and based upon incomplete data, there is always a temptation to subsume all information under the initial diagnostic label. Clinical Decision Support Systems CDSS may be based upon scientifically and mathematically reputable tools such as Bayes’ Theorem. But this does not mean that such systems are error-free when interacting with ‘real world’ complaints.
Bayes’ Theorem is used when “several alternative hypotheses are competing” and then the clinician conducts experimental tests to observe whether or not those consequences can or are likely to actually occur in the specific situation at hand (Pezzullo 2010). The tools of observation and experimentation must be accurately deployed by the observer, in this case the medical practitioner. Clinicians must use CDSS responsibility, in the context of ever-changing information and also their own instincts regarding the patient. While a database’s computation of probabilities may contain thousands of potential symptoms, causes, and diagnoses, ultimately the observer makes the decision as to how to test and interpret the data.
The American College of Medical Informants states: “CDS has been effective in improving outcomes at some health care institutions and practice sites by making needed medical knowledge readily available to knowledge users. Yet at many other sites, CDS has been problematic, stalled in the planning stages, or never even attempted.” Knowledge within medical databases such as CDSS must be useful, pertinent, easily searchable, and continuously updated. There is always a danger that with the increasingly pressed time constraints for doctors and nurses, the use of the tool will come to subsume the need for human efforts, input, and on-the-ground knowledge.
CDS Roadmap. (2006). American College of Medical Informants. Retrieved May 19, 2010 at https://www.amia.org/files/cdsroadmap_exec_summary.pdf
Pezzullo, John C. (2010, May 15). Bayes Theorem calculator. Interactive statistics.
Retrieved May 19, 2010 at http://statpages.org/bayes.html
Reply student #2
I think that your post highlights something very common amongst both practitioners and patients: the desire for diagnosis to be as an exact a science as physics or astronomy. It would be so nice to be able to discover the cause of a patient’s illness as easily as figuring out a scientific equation. However, while the diagnostic process invariably involves scientific facts and figures, diagnosis is just as much an art as a science. Past experience and gut instincts also play a role, and every clinician has his or her own methodology. Even the context of where the patient is seen may impact the assessment: a patient who is treated in the ER will receive less personalized care than someone seen by a specialist for the same complaint.
Are Diagnostic Decision Support Systems (DDSS) the solution? They can make medical treatment more standardized, by using data-driven analysis based upon a wealth of experience much greater than one clinician can possess. However, not all DDSS systems may be equally effective. According to Bravata (et al. 2004): “Systems specifically designed to support the diagnosis of bioterrorism-relevant diseases or syndrome” were deemed “critically deficient,” and as “false-positive and false-negative rates are unknown for most systems, decision making on the basis of these systems is seriously compromised.” Not all DDSS systems are created equal, especially systems designed to give advice in extraordinary circumstances: the information sources within the DDSS database may be more limited.
For any illness, being too focused on common probabilities of causation can cause clinicians to overlook data that does not fit in with their original interpretation of the patient’s illness. Using DDSS before getting to know the patient can cause significant ‘eccentric’ symptoms to be overlooked, as DDSS may bias the practitioner in favor of diagnosing common illnesses. “With all the tools available to modern medicine — the blood tests and M.R.I.’s and endoscopes — you might think that misdiagnosis has become a rare thing. But you would be wrong. Studies of autopsies have shown that doctors seriously misdiagnose fatal illnesses about 20% of the time. So millions of patients are being treated for the wrong disease” (Leonhardt 2006). Technology is never a substitute; it is merely a complement for the human side of medicine.
Bravata, Sundaram V., K.M. McDonald, W.M. Smith, H. Szeto, M.D. Schleinitz, et al.
(2004, January). Detection and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response. Emergency Infectious Diseases. [serial online]. Retrieved May 19, 2010. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no1/03-0243.htm
Leonhardt, David. (2006, February 22).Why doctors so often get it wrong. The New York Times.
Retrieved May 19, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/22/business/22leonhardt.html
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!
Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.