Posted: March 18th, 2023
cricket controversy in South Africa: 1969-1991
The degree to which international sporting events should be affected by politics is controversial. For example, the decision of the United States not to attend the Olympics in 1980 in protest of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan is often cited as one of America’s most ineffective actions during the Cold War. Its main impact was upon American as well as other international athletes who had worked their entire lives to hone their physical perfection for that moment in time, rather than the oppressive and threatening government of the U.S.S.R. Furthermore, sport is supposed to be a great uniting force between peoples, regardless of the differences of their governments, rather than a vehicle of government protest.
However, perhaps the most controversial action that blended politics and sport was the enforced isolation of South African athletes from most international competitions until the end of the apartheid regime. South Africa was expelled from the British Commonwealth in 1961 and subsequently “excluded from sporting events and subjected to trade sanctions in the 1970s and 1980s” (BBC News, 2009). The South African system only began to show signs of unraveling in 1985, when non-whites won limited constitutional rights and interracial marriage was permitted (BBC News, 2009). The sport of cricket, beloved by almost all Commonwealth countries, excluded South Africa from participation in test matches until the end of black disenfranchisement in 1970. The exclusion from cricket test matches was ended in 1991 when newly elected President F.W. de Klerk repealed all apartheid laws.
The ban formally began in May of 1970, when the Cricket Council reversed its decision to allow South African cricketers to tour England after pressure from the Labour Home Secretary, James Callaghan. The Council Secretary said there had been a “formal request from Her Majesty’s Government to withdraw the invitation to the South African touring team” (BBC News, 2009). Originally, the Cricket Council was going to allow the South African team to compete, but African and Asian countries threatened to boycott the Commonwealth Games if the tour was permitted to progress. British human rights groups had also threatened to protest the inclusion of South Africa on the tour. The Stop The Seventy Tour campaign said it would disrupt any matches played during the tour in which South Africa was a competitor and praised the Labour government for pressuring the Cricket Council to yield to the activist’s demands.
A ban upon South African international competition in sport, it was hoped, would be particularly effective in changing the racist policies of the nation. It was often said: “Sport is a religion in South Africaâ€¦South Africa is the most sports-mad country in the world” (Anderson et al. 2004).South Africa was banned from the Olympic Games in 1964 because it would only permit whites to represent the nation, on the grounds that only whites could become citizens. FIFA (Federation of International Football Associations) suspended South Africa in 1960 and then finally expelled the national team from competition permanently in 1976. But the more rarefied sports of rugby and cricket were slower to react. These sports were often criticized by anti-apartheid activists within South Africa because unlike football, there were few examples of interracial play under apartheid, given the greater expense and the class as well as racial barriers that existed within these sports.
The end of apartheid has exhibited swift changes in South African cricket: recently, black African Makhaya Ntini recently participated in his historic 100th five-day test match for South Africa. Growing up under the apartheid regime, Ntini could only dream of being a shepherd, given that black Africans were prohibited from entering most recreational facilities. Until he was 15, Ntini was considered a “second-class human being,” now he is a legendary cricketer playing a celebrated 100th test match (Richards 2009). The rivalry between England and South Africa is one of the most closely-contested in all of sport: “Of the seven series played since South Africa’s return to world cricket in the early 1990s, two have been drawn and the other five won by a single match — two by England, three by South Africa” and Ntini proudly represented his nation (Richards 2009). He was able to do so, at least in part, because England was so vigilant in combing a strong human rights stance with a belief in good sportsmanship in cricket during the years of apartheid.
“1970: South Africa cricket tour called off.” BBC News. May 22. December 31, 2009.
Anderson, Connie M, Bielert, Troy A, & Jones, Ryan P. (2004). One country, one sport, endless knowledge: The anthropological study of sports in South
Africa. Anthropologica, 46(1), 47-55. Retrieved December 31, 2009, from Ethnic
NewsWatch (ENW). (Document ID: 702073431).
Richards, H. “A milestone for an emblem: Ntini to play 100th test when South Africa starts series against England.” International Herald Tribune, December 16, 2009.
http://www.proquest.com / (accessed December 31, 2009).
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!
Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.