Posted: March 18th, 2023
Scientology may be one of the most controversial modern religions, its late founder L. Ron Hubbard one of modern history’s most contentious writers and spiritual leaders. The Church of Scientology was founded in 1954 but the origins of its doctrine can be traced back to Hubbard’s 1950 publication Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. Dianetics became an unexpected best seller, and its success propelled its author to sudden fame. The Dianetics book does not squarely address the topic of religion but reads more like a self-help book that addresses issues like insecurity and self-doubt. The official Dianetics Web site copy illustrates the tone and content of Hubbard’s seminal work: “there is a single source of all your problems, stress, unhappiness and self-doubt. it’s called the reactive mind – the hidden part of your mind that stores all painful experiences and then uses them against you.” The book was the product of years of Hubbard’s studies as he traveled with his father throughout China and India, learned psychoanalytic theory from one of Freud’s own pupils, and was offered honorary status in a Blackfoot Indian tribe near his home in Helena, Montana (“History of Scientology”). In addition to his exposure to various world religions and burgeoning theories of mind, Hubbard also attended mainstream universities. At George Washington University, Hubbard studied both math, science and engineering and reportedly participated in the first class on atomic and molecular physics taught in America (“About L. Ron Hubbard”). The combined exposure to science and mysticism invariably prompted Hubbard to develop a keen curiosity about the interface between the two.
That interface is explored in the dozens of official Church of Scientology texts, audio lectures, and DVDs. While it is doubtful that “L. Ron Hubbard became the first to bring a scientific methodology to age-old questions of existence,” Church of Scientology literature does address issues related to human consciousness (“About L. Ron Hubbard”). Emphasis is on the experiential aspect of inner world exploration rather than on classical scientific methodology. Nevertheless, Scientology’s pragmatic approach to spiritual exploration distinguishes it from other religions. “Scientology is therefore something one does, not merely something one believes in,” (“Scientology: Its Background and Origins”).
Scientology seems the epitome of New Age faith with its declarations of universalism and human potential. Official Church of Scientology Web sites refer to “the wisdom of some 50,000 years,” in typical New Age idealism of ancient civilizations (“Scientology: Its Background and Origins”). Similarly, terminology used in Church of Scientology writings is also New Age, such as: “to codify an exact and standard route along which individuals may ascend to higher states of awareness,” (“About L. Ron Hubbard”). The Church of Scientology also embraces pseudo-scientific technologies that ostensibly measure intangibles like thought or the soul or are simply referred to as “an array of social betterment technologies,” (“About L. Ron Hubbard”).
If the Church of Scientology is quintessentially New Age in its tone and theoretical foundation, it is also so in its sociological manifestations. For instance, the Church of Scientology has attracted a cadre of elite celebrities including Tom Cruise and John Travolta. Celebrity attention has been both blessing and curse for the religion, which has also garnered a reputation for being as flakey as celebrities themselves. The Church of Scientology takes its celebrity members seriously, though, offering them VIP treatment at its official Celebrity Centers located around the world. According to the official Web site, “Church of Scientology Celebrity Centres…provide special services which help artists apply Scientology principles to their chosen fields.” As a celebrity himself until he died in 1986, Hubbard undoubtedly understood the nature of fame.
A dilettante who lived an admirably full life, Hubbard flew planes, wrote screenplays, and even — started his own religion. Whether he is looked on as a cult leader or as a genius, his legacy with the Church of Scientology is palpable. Churches are located on all the inhabited continents. L. Ron Hubbard has twice entered the Guinness Book of World Records, in 2005 for being the most translated author, and in 2006 for being the most published author (Robinson & Buttnor 2006). An estimated ten million people have at least visited Scientology churches, although numbers for active membership are disputed. However, with 3150 churches and over 4000 missions and groups in 163 countries, the numbers of people participating in the Church of Scientology must be high. The third party American Religious Identity Survey (ARIS) 2001 survey revealed that about 77,000 Americans declare themselves members of the Church of Scientology. According to some estimates, about 500,000 individuals worldwide would declare themselves to be Scientologists, a number falling far short of official Church of Scientology estimates of about 10 million followers (Adherents.com).
The first Church of Scientology opened in Los Angeles. It sprouted up in response to a growing demand for Dianetics teaching outlets: 750 Dianetics groups and six larger foundations had thrived nationwide. Photographs of early Dianetics and Church of Scientology meetings frequently depict one of Hubbard’s many technologies, which are central to the religion. According to the Church of Scientology Web site, “Ron indeed contacted, measured and provided a means to experience the human soul,” (“About L. Ron Hubbard”). Adherents continue to be fascinated by this feature of Scientology, which is also one of the many issues critics of the religion disparage. The most well-known of the Church of Scientology technologies is the Electro-psychometer or E-meter. Described as “mixing a little fact with a lot of fiction,” the E-meter is an actual ohm meter with a relatively straightforward circuit board (Touretsky nd).
E-meters are employed during the central Scientology practice of “auditing,” in which a Church of Scientology counselor works one-on-one with individual members. Auditing is “intended to help an individual look at his own existence and improve his ability,” and is officially described as a “unique form of personal spiritual counseling which helps people look at their own existence and improves their ability to confront what they are and where they are,” (Robinson & Buttnor 2006; “What is Scientology Auditing?”). The E-meter supposedly detects changes in the individual’s mental state while he or she is being audited.
One of the Church of Scientology’s strong points is its dedication to global humanitarian aid, as well as its work with drug and criminal rehabilitation. The Church of Scientology is outspokenly anti-drug. A special section of the official Scientology Web site addresses the negative effects of drugs and chemicals including environmental pollutants. Part of the Church of Scientology core training includes a “Purification Rundown,” which is basically a set of spa-like activities like sauna, heavy exercise, and ingestion of vitamins and minerals. The Church of Scientology Volunteer Minister program, which does require some Scientology training, conducts social service programs worldwide in admirable fields like disaster relief. Supposedly their assistance in the aftermath of September 11 earned a group of Volunteer Ministers the New York Fire Department’s Medal of Valor (“Disaster Response: Answering the Call”).
The Church of Scientology basically claims to offer the solution to all of life’s problems: from confusion to physical pain to thwarted relationship and career success. Ostensibly, the religion answers the premier existential questions: “Who are we? What do we consist of? Where do we come from? Where are we going? What are we doing?” (“The Scientology Religion”). With such far-reaching promises, the Church of Scientology’s success is understandable. Members and practitioners hope to gain inner peace and spiritual awareness, an understanding of life’s meaning and one’s place in the universe. The Church of Scientology is in this way not much different from any other religion. In fact, the Church of Scientology is not deistic. Although the church of Scientology teachings do refer to a Supreme Being, that Being is not anthropomorphic and is conveyed as more of a state of mind than as a God. Scientology theology therefore shares more in common with Buddhism than with the Biblical traditions.
Scientology cosmology and mythology is wholly unique, based on Hubbard’s writings. One of Scientology’s central creation legends is of Xenu, a “galactic ruler.” According to the story, Xenu peopled the Earth with human beings, “stacked them around volcanoes and blew them up with hydrogen bombs,” (ReligionFacts). This story is known as Incident II in the Church of Scientology literature and is one of the many negative memories imprinted, or “implanted” on human consciousness.
According to Scientology doctrine, human nature is inherently good, but has been tainted by the residual memory of traumatic events known as “implants.” The Xenu event (Incident II) left what is called the R6 implant on human consciousness. Some of the traumatic events are collective, shared by all of humanity like Incident II. Others occur at the individual level: traumas in childhood or in past lives.
Scientology has a strong belief in reincarnation and a systematic outline of the transmigration of souls. One of the goals of Scientology is to heal the wounds of past trauma and to achieve a state called “Clear.” Achieving the Clear state requires adherence to Church of Scientology practices like auditing. Auditing helps the practitioner remove the “implants” that prevent one from being happy and fulfilled.
In accordance with its systematic maps of human consciousness, the Church of Scientology and its social organization are hierarchical and rigid. Members pass through stages of development during which they improve their self-awareness and overall intelligence. Human progress and personal growth is described as a series of dynamic impulses. When Hubbard first codified his beliefs in the Dianetics literature he outlined four of these dynamic impulses, referred to simply as “dynamics.” The dynamics have been described as basic human instincts for survival (Robinson & Buttnor 2006). Basic survival instinct is the First Dynamic, focused on the individual ego and its needs. The Church of Scientology describes the First Dynamic as “the effort to attain the highest level of survival for the longest possible time for self,” (“Dynamics of Life”). The First Dynamic also includes the instinct to protect one’s own physical possessions.
The Second Dynamic refers at its most basic to the drive to procreate but also encompasses the breadth of the human impulse to create that which outlasts the individual. Protection and security of the family and home are classified as Second Dynamic needs, and sex is also a Second Dynamic activity. The Third Dynamic is the social need: the group impulse. Surviving and thriving in group environments is the domain of the Third Dynamic, which can entail anything from a small study group to a whole nation. Finally, human beings identify collectively with the human race. Their collective survival needs are embraced by the Fourth Dynamic of species survival. Overarching concerns about the obliteration of the planet or the human race would be considered Fourth Dynamic issues.
After Hubbard codified the Scientology doctrine he proposed four more dynamics. These later four help illustrate the human being’s place within the cosmos. For instance, the Fifth and Sixth Dynamics refer to non-human life forms and the principles of physics, respectively. The human relationship with the environment including plants and animals falls under the domain of the Fifth Dynamic and interest in the totality of space and time would fall under the Sixth. The Seventh and Eighth Dynamics are transcendent. The spiritual drive, the instinct to know the ground of all being or the source of consciousness is a Seventh Dynamic urge. Eighth Dynamic follows from the Seventh and is simply called “Infinity.”
Another core belief of Scientology demonstrates the essentially social nature of the religion. The three principles of affinity, reality, and communication, referred to as the ARC Triangle, underlie human communication dynamics. Scientology remains immanently concerned with healthy interpersonal relationships. One of the benefits the Church of Scientology holds out for its members is improved relationships and the ARC triangle is a central principle guiding the practitioner toward balanced communication. Like the Eight Dynamics, the ARC Triangle are inherently practical theories that are not nearly as objectionable as the Xenu story which has earned the Church of Scientology considerable scorn.
Scientologists propose a tripartite division of the human being into body, mind and “thetan.” The thetan is partly defined as “the source of all creation and life itself,” (“What is Scientology?”). One of the Scientology practices that liken it to most other New Age religions is “exteriorization.” An out-of-body experience, exteriorization is deliberately induced as a means to enhance spiritual awareness.
Based on its intricate, extensive, and clearly outlined code of beliefs and practices, the Church of Scientology offers a systematic program of personal, social, and spiritual development. The Church of Scientology is commonly criticized as a cult. Detractors and former members who denounce the religion are called “Suppressive Persons” or in Scientology terminology “SPs.” Tory Christman manages one of the most high profile anti-Scientology Web sites on the Internet called Operation Clambake. In an Operation Clambake article, the author claims that members “have been lied to, betrayed, abused, deceived,” their stories made public in the mass media and online (Christman nd). An article in Time magazine exposed the dark side of the Church of Scientology. Entitled “The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power,” the article focuses on a litany of scams and scandals reportedly perpetrated by the Church of Scientology. Included in the article is a claim that the group “buys massive quantities of its own books from retail stores to propel the titles onto best-seller lists,” which would explain the Guinness Book of World Records accolades. Members also funnel large chunks of money into the Church, leading Behar (1991) to declare the Church of Scientology to be “a hugely profitable global racket that survives by intimidating members and critics in a Mafia-like manner.”
One means by which the Church of Scientology recruits potential members (and reaps financial rewards) is through its many offshoot organizations like Narconon. A “non-profit drug rehab program dedicated to eliminating drug abuse and drug addiction through drug prevention, education and rehabilitation,” Narconon uses Hubbard’s “Drug Rehabilitation Technology” to achieve the desired results (Narconon International). According to Operation Clambake, participation in Narconon’s 12-week rehabilitation program cost $15,000 in 1992 and may run as high as $30,000 (Christman; wiki). While the name Narconon resembles those used in the 12-Step programs, the two share little in common. For instance, Narconon rehab participants “graduate” and do not attend any regular meetings (Narconon). The materials used in the Narconon rehabilitation program are directly derived from the Church of Scientology but are specially designed with the theme of addiction. Concepts like the Eight Survival Dynamics and the Purification program are integral to Narconon recovery. In addition to Narconon, the Church of Scientology operates several other seemingly disconnected organizations including the World Literacy Crusade.
The organization lures potential recruits through a free personality test: another means of making Scientology seem more scientific. A personality test also makes the Church of Scientology seem more like a self-help group than a religion. However, the personality test comes with strings attached. The test is obviously used as a marketing and recruitment technique, much like a coupon or a mail-in rebate is used in the commercial world. Because to receive my test results I had to appear in person at my local Church of Scientology center, I used this as an opportunity to find out more about the Church of Scientology first hand. The Church of Scientology Mission of New Jersey in Teaneck called me about a week after I completed the personality test. They invited me to a welcome session at the missionary center, which was also free. On the phone, the woman told me that I would have the opportunity to learn more about Scientology from people with years of experience.
Joining a Church of Scientology appears relatively simple and straightforward. Church of Scientology materials are available in public libraries, on official Scientology Web sites, and on eBay too. Taking a personal interest in Scientology one step further by visiting a Scientology center is also relatively simple for anyone living in the United States. If a Scientology church is not located nearby, a Scientology mission will be. I entered the Teaneck missionary armed with some background knowledge about the religion and with an open mind too.
Concurrent with all the controversy surrounding it, the Church of Scientology Mission has a cult-like atmosphere. A sterile building inside and out, the missionary’s walls are neatly stacked with Scientology books and DVDs. Instrumental New Age music plays softly over the PA system in the waiting room. I was one of about ten people waiting for the introduction seminar to begin. When I approached the reception counter, a woman there gave me a clipboard with forms to fill out, as if I were in a doctor’s office. A few of the fellow prospects smiled at me as I sat down in one of the clean and comfortable chairs. After a few moments a man and a woman walked out of a door, just as the doctors do when they are ready to see the patients. Immaculately dressed in business attire and groomed to boot, the pair assumed an air of casual authority. Both held clipboards in their arms, looked around the room and said, “Welcome to our mission! If you are here for the introductory seminar please follow us.” Their tone was calm and professional, and as they turned, all of the people in the waiting room stood up and followed.
We were ushered into a conference room down the hallway just a few doors down from the reception area. Seating ourselves around the long table, we each had a name tag waiting for us. It took some shuffling around before we dutifully sat in our assigned seats. Also at our seats and by our name tags was a thin portfolio with the Scientology symbol: a gold letter “S” with two triangles. The more familiar Scientology logo, with a cross for the letter “I” was found on the letterhead inside the folder. The folder’s contents included simple but inspirational information sheets telling me — and the other newcomers — what Scientology was all about, a little about L. Ron Hubbard, and a list of publications. Before I could read everything in my folder, the man and woman returned to the room and shut the door behind them. They introduced themselves and said they would be showing us a brief video about the Church of Scientology and would be available afterwards for a question and answer session.
The orientation video was about twenty minutes long. It only briefly alluded to the founder of the Church, L. Ron Hubbard somewhere in the middle. Using slick but corporate-style graphics and a muzak score, the video also introduced some of the core concepts of Scientology. When the video was over, the man and woman turned the lights back on and sat at opposite ends of the conference table. They began by clarifying the difference between Church of Scientology missions and churches, underscoring the fact that the Teaneck center was a mission and did not offer the range of services available at the church. A list of those services would be found on one of the forms in our portfolios. The list was almost dizzying, like perusing a university catalog for the first time. When asked where a person could go to attend a Scientology service, the man and woman replied that the closest churches were in Philadelphia and New York.
It appears the Church of Scientology does not hold religious services in the way that many organized religions do. When I asked what Scientology priests were called they told me there were no priests, because each individual pursues his or her own path to God. However, Churches of Scientology do have Chaplains, and Sunday services are offered in a non-denominational setting: “For the person new to Scientology, this is an opportunity to gain a better understanding of the religion. For the Scientologist, it provides the chance to gain further insight into familiar concepts,” (“Other Church Activities”). Church of Scientology Chaplains also conduct weddings, funerals, and other services.
What Scientology offers, according to the man and woman at the introduction seminar, are the tools to achieve our goals. We don’t let someone else do the work for us and we don’t count on someone else to give us the answers. Scientology teaches us how to discover those answers for ourselves because “that is the only way we can learn and be free,” as the woman said. Instead of sermons we get spiritual training, auditing, and various life improvement courses. However, to run the courses a person must achieve the state of “Clear,” or being declared free from the “engrams” that block our consciousness. The Scientology personnel who administer the auditing services are called Examiners. An individual undergoing auditing is also assigned a Case Manager. Thus, each member in the Scientology organization is labeled. If I were to join I would be called a “Preclear” to refer to my novice state.
The heart of Scientology are its courses and the Bridge System. Referring to the individual’s systematic and hierarchical course of development, the Bridge System informs the basic Scientology philosophy that individuals must progress through stages of learning to get rid of “engrams” and “implants.” As with many religions, Scientology has its own jargon, which helps create the in-group solidarity and status. The list of courses and the lingo used can be dizzying, and the Church of Scientology has prepared several glossaries of terms, one of which is available online.
The Bridge system actually uses grades and is therefore structured like school, a system that effectively encourages the recruit to remain in the Church of Scientology as a “student” of the “Academy.” Many Church of Scientology courses are held in blocks of eight hours a day, five days a week but some “Foundation” courses are held on half-days for people with jobs. Auditing is a separate procedure from the Scientology coursework. Churches of Scientology have a special auditing area called the Hubbard Guidance Center (HGC). At the Church of Scientology Missionaries like the one at Teaneck, some “lower level” auditing services are offered in addition to a handful of basic Scientology courses. However, most of the courses and auditing services, as well as the Purification Rundown only take place the larger centers and churches.
Auditing, it turns out, is an intensive and expensive process. I was not offered a clear answer (no pun intended) regarding the cost of auditing services because they are long-term and intensive and vary. Instead, the representatives at the Teaneck missionary encouraged me to schedule an appointment with a Case Manager who would be assigned to me immediately. Scientology personnel all have titles, like Course Supervisor or Director of Training. I later found out that the of representatives included the Director, who is known as the Mission Holder.
The Missionaries acted as if they were selling time shares and the entire information session was organized like a time share sales meeting. During the question and answer session they stressed the “need” to register with the church nearest to us: because our personality tests had revealed areas of concern. They reminded us that we had expressed interest in the Church of Scientology because obviously we were lacking something in our lives: career fulfillment, the right relationship, perfect health. We were told to fill out one of the forms in our folder, which would register us for one of the courses or an auditing session at the Church of Scientology closest to us.
When the man came around to collect our data and I had not filled out my form he stopped and asked me why. In front of the group, I felt put on the spot. He persuaded me to fill out my personal information, which included standard fields for name, address, and phone number and assured me that I was not committed to anything and would not be charged. I finally relented and admitted that I was there for a research paper. He said “Oh. What better way to conduct your research than to visit one of the churches and hopefully attend one of the courses?” Under considerable pressure and not wanting to stall the group any longer than I needed to I filled out the form but left a fake phone number.
The Church of Scientology Missionary is just that: a mission. I was expecting a hard sell but might not have been prepared for the skill level of the representatives there. Further research reveals that Scientology employees are compensated by commission as well as salary. Auditing is promoted as a high-paying career on Scientology-related Web sites like the one for the American Saint Hill Organization (ASHO). The ASHO describes “preclears” solely in terms of financial gain, making claims like “You send your preclear into a nearby org, and she buys an Academy Training package for $8,000. You receive a 15% commission on those services, which is payable when she arrives at the Org to do them, ($1,200.00).” It was starting to make sense.
A follow-up phone call to the Teaneck Missionary failed to provide me with the answers to some questions I had about the commission system. I wanted to find out whether the missionary and the representatives I met were also compensated in some way for any recruits (“preclears”) they sent to a Church. When I asked the question, the receptionist became suddenly curt and repeated stock phrases about the Church of Scientology being a non-profit organization. As I was not about to shell out the many thousands of dollars it would take for me to get audited, the introductory seminar would likely be my only first-hand experience with the Church of Scientology.
L. Ron Hubbard and his wife were themselves audited: although not in the Scientology sense. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) was after Hubbard and the Church of Scientology for numerous violations during the 1970s (Behar). In 1993 the Church of Scientology paid the IRS $12.5 million dollars in a legal settlement that enabled the Church of Scientology to thereafter enjoy tax-exempt status as an officially classified religion in the United States (MacDonald 1997). Other countries like Germany have not granted Scientology its status as a religion and instead classifies the organization as a commercial enterprise.
The Church of Scientology is clearly part religion part business. After visiting the Teaneck Missionary I became increasingly convinced of its brilliant business model. The sales representatives were attractive and well-dressed, forceful and just bordering on being pushy. They market their religion well through a range of free materials and introductory seminars. This serves two functions: to make the individual feel guilty and more prone to at least buying one of the Scientology books being sold in the reception area; and as a sales technique. The personality test sells the individual on the Scientology teachings, many of which happen to make sense on a cerebral level. Moreover, the Church of Scientology maintains an intricate and hierarchical network that closely resembles the corporate world. Scientology captures the spirit of capitalism and globalization, delivering its products and services worldwide.
Adherents.com “Major Religions Ranked by Size.” Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html#Scientology
About L. Ron Hubbard.” An Introduction to Scientology. Church of Scientology International. Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.scientology.org/interview/lronhubbard_3.html
American Saint Hill Organization. Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.scientology-asho.org/index.htm
Behar, R. (1991). “The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power.” Time Magazine. May 6, 1991, p. 50. Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Fishman/time-behar.html
Christman, T. (nd). Are things being hidden from you? Operation Clambake. Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.xenu.net/archive/infopack/1.htm
Church of Scientology Celebrity Centres.” Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.scientology.org/p_jpg/world/worldeng/21/cc01.htm
Disaster Response: Answering the Call.” Volunteer Ministers.org. Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.volunteerministers.org/relief/index.html
Dynamics of Life.” Church of Scientology. Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/description/scientology/pg002-1.html
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Kosmin, B.A. & Lachman, S.P. (2001). “Top Twenty Religions in the United States, 2001.” Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://adherents.com/rel_USA.html#religions
MacDonald, E. (1997). Scientologists and IRS settled for $12.5 million.” Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Cowen/essays/wj301297.html
Narconon International. Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.narconon.org/
Other Church Activities.” Church of Scientology. Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.scientology.org/p_jpg/world/worldeng/20/20-other.htm
Robinson, B.A. & Buttnor, a. (2006). “Scientology.” Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.religioustolerance.org/scientol1.htm
Scientology: Its Background and Origins.” Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/background-origins/index.html
The Scientology Religion.” Church of Scientology. Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/background-origins/pg001.html
Touretzky, D.S. (nd). ” Secrets of Scientology: The E-Meter.” Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Secrets/E-Meter/index.html
What is Dianetics?’ Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.dianetics.org/
What is Scientology?” The Church of Scientology. Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/description/scientology/pg001.html
What is Scientology Auditing?” Church of Scientology. Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.auditing.org
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