Posted: May 25th, 2022

Bayesian-based approach to reducing uncertainty

Information Technologies

What is the Logical to-Be model? What is accomplished with Logical to-Be modeling?

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The Logical to-Be Model is a Bayesian-based approach to reducing uncertainty throughout a series of options, relying on a series of algorithms to find an optimal solution set. The approach used for Logical to-Be Modeling can be rules, constraint, or statistically derived using simulation techniques. The logical to-Be Model, when using a constraint or rules-based approach, looks to interpolate a series of independent factors and recommend an optimal solution.

The Logical to-Be Modeling approach is often used for optimizing network routing algorithms and also ensuring a high level of reliability throughout computer and telecommunications networks. It also is often used for creating self-learning systems that can define patterns and analyze them, in addition to routing ands re-routing traffic through complex networks based on this learning. Logical to-be modeling forms the basis for an increasingly large number of algorithms specifically focused on making networking traffic more point-to-point and less defined by most visited nodes acting as hubs. The use of Logical to-be modeling also can significantly increase the performance of constraint-based expert systems that interpret, assimilate, analyze and complete literally millions of combinations to arrive at an optimal solution set.

Briefly describe the four types of implementation strategies used to install new systems.

There are four major approaches to completing systems implementations, and these specifically apply to the installation and use of enterprise-class applications that serve hundreds or even thousands of users. As the systems that may be in place already within an organization have mission-critical, or data that is absolutely essential for the functioning of the company on them, these implementation strategies focus on making the installation of a new system as seamless and unobtrusive as possible.

The first strategy is to run both the old and new system in conjunction with each other for a period of months to ensure no active data is lost and to ensure there is no disruption to the business. The second implementation is to stop using the older system and immediately switch to the new system. This is rarely done with large, critical applications including accounting, finance, or ERP systems. Instead it is used for CRM and possibly database management systems. The third implementation strategy is to complete several pilot programs, often distributed throughout each location needing the systems’ data, and then coordinate these pilots into an entirely new system. The fourth approach is to permanently leave the existing systems in place, and after a period of piloting a new system, integrate it into the other systems and create a new system complex, as it is called, or an entirely new computing platform for the organization.

Once discrepancies between the software packages’ capabilities and the company’s needs are identified, the project team must choose the best way to deal with the discrepancies. List and describe the three major alternatives to choose from.

Software packages are designed to include the most commonly used features and functions that are needed by the majority potential customers. Despite the inclusion of these most commonly used features however there are often process areas, functional requirements and strategies that are not covered by the software application as it is originally designed. What many project teams do is choose among three specific alternatives to align the software packages’ capabilities with the needs of an organization. The first is to complete customization of the baseline application through programming efforts, often relying on the inclusion of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that make it possible to extend the existing functionality of the application to the unique needs of customers. The second alterative is to add on third-party applications or components that address the unmet needs of the organization. These third-party applications are those that are created often as a result of partnerships between application developers and those third-party companies that can benefit from reselling their products to the application developers’ customer base. A third alternative is to create the extensions and needed modules to be written from scratch, designed specifically to the needs of the customer. This is a very costly approach to customizing an application, and as a result is not often used. To summarize, the use of APIs in the first approach to extending an applications’ capability, the second is the purchase of third-party applications and the third is the development of new extension or add-on modules from scratch.

Compare the two managerial roles associated with successfully managed systems projects: the project sponsor and project champion.

The project sponsor is typically a senior executive who has the responsibility of accomplishing certain strategic objectives that are so wide in scope they require synchronization of many different parts of the organization. An example would be the development of an entirely new Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system that is capable of reporting back the contact and selling histories by each customer account. The project sponsor in this specific instance would typically be the Vice President of Sales, or the Vice President of Marketing. The project sponsor is also responsible for working with the broader organization to ensure the project has enough resources, both from a staffing standpoint in addition to support at the upper levels of management to ensure the project gets continued funding.

The role of the project champion is to be the leader of the actual development itself, often relying on a variety of consensus- and team-building approaches to accomplishing this. The best project champions are able to gain high levels of cooperation for their projects even from professionals not in their specific departments or who report to them directly. Further, the best project champions rely on a compelling vision of what the future project will deliver in terms of benefits, results, and even recognition for those who participate. In this way a strong project champion can transform teams, using a combination of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. It is increasingly important for organizations to screen their project champions to see if they have transformational leadership ability.

Bass, B.M. (1998) predicts that demand for transformational leaders will increase markedly in this century and will be viewed as a response to a world that is increasingly complex, rapidly changing and highly globalized in its approach to accomplishing projects in an increasingly turbulent global environment.

What are the two approaches to estimating project costs and how are they different from one another

The two approaches to estimating project costs are the budget estimate, or as it is sometimes called, the top down approach and the second is the bottoms-up estimate, or as it is sometimes called, the definitive estimate. The budget estimate approach is created in the very early stages of a project and is often based on the amount of previous experience an organization or department has had in this area previously, and is often driven by the largest and most expensive expenditures first. This approach also takes into account existing internal budgets and the available resources to complete the task.

The definitive estimate or bottoms up estimating approach as it is sometimes called, is the more accurate of the two and requires in many cases a work breakdown analysis to define the key cost areas of the project. This work breakdown analysis or structure also serves to define the major milestones of the project as well. As a result, this approach is considered superior to the top-down planning practices of many organizations in that it captures in greater detail the needed action items and in larger projects, the dependencies associated with the project as well. Bottoms-up estimating also can serve to define which spending components are necessary and which are optional. This is invaluable in creating a project budget.

In summary, top-down approach is best used when there is already a very tight budget in place for managing a new project, as the available funds can act as a constraint on what is affordable to an organization. The bottoms-up approach on the other hand shows the steps necessary for completing the project, including a prioritization of each step and spend category if the planners make this an objective from the outset.

What challenge do file-sharing applications such as Napster cause organizations in trying to enforce policies and procedures?

There are actually many facets or sides to the challenge organizations have in trying to enforce policies and procedures as they relate to file-sharing applications including Napster and others. First, there is the security issue, specifically in the use of PEM (Memory Module) drives for moving music back and forth from work to home PCs and laptops, and to iPods and MP3 players. Organizations are concerned about these PEM drives also being used to move confidential data out of

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