Posted: March 18th, 2023

Analogous and Homologous Structures

Analogous & Homologous Structures

The author of this report is asked to answer several questions about anatomical features. Namely, the author will be focusing on the difference between analogous and homologous structures. Of course, the assignment describes that these features are instrumental to the proper classification of species. The advance of technology has increased and improved the ability for scientists and biologists in particular to engage in this behavior but it has been a science for quite a while. While some people are under-informed about what analogous and homologous structures and what it all means, the author of this report would deign to educate both the author as well as anyone new to the subject that might read this report,.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Analogous and Homologous Structures
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

Differences Explained

As neatly explained by a website ran and operated by the University of California at Berkeley, homology/homologous structures are those that were inherited from the same common ancestor. For example, eye color in two grandchildren from the same grandparents would be sharing a homologous trait. On the other hand, a sample of analogy (analogous) evolution is when there are similarities due to other factors. This is otherwise known as convergent evolution. As explained by the Berkeley website, convergent evolution is when “two distinct lineages evolve a similar characteristic independently of one another. This often occurs because both lineages face similar environmental challenges and selected pressures” (Berkeley, 2015). For example, blue is a fairly uncommon eye color. If two people have it, it COULD mean it is because of a common ancestor. That would make it a homologous evolutionary result. However, if they do not share a common ancestor, than it is an analogous results. Meaning, it is a matter of correlation rather than causality. The former is when two things happen to occur at the same time (but may or may not be related) and the latter is when one provably and verifiably affects or causes the other (Berkeley, 2015).

As far as an example of a set of species that are supposedly homologous rather than analogous, there would be the Eurasian Magpie and the Australian Magpie. The former of those two is a corvid and the latter of those is not (Christidis & Boles, 2007). This is a bit funny and interesting because they are both birds, they are both magpies and they are quite similar in overall appearance. However, they are in a completely different classification of birds from each other due to the fact that any similarities they have are NOT because they possess a common ancestor (Berkeley, 2015).

The author is now asked to answer the question of how this has affected the current classification system. Indeed, the author of this report would suggest that it just like DNA in people. Indeed, there are people out there that look strikingly alike. Sometimes, the resemblance is so strong that they get mistaken for each other and people insist that they are family members. Indeed, they may have a connection somewhere in their family tree but the DNA profile of the person would almost surely show that while they ended up with much the same characteristics, there is not a familial link that proves that the DNA of one led to the DNA of the other. Indeed, it is just the way that the DNA dice rolled for those two people. Indeed, the author of this report would ponder that there is probably at least one person out there that is not “homologous” to the author yet looks exactly like the author. It can be a hard distinction to make for some but must be learned (Berkeley, 2015).

Reading Assignment

The author of this report has been asked to read the eighth and ninth chapter of the assigned text. Upon doing so, there will be a bit of a taxonomy exercise. It is noted by the assignment that taxonomists try to group organisms together into their correct categories. With that in mind, the author is asked to pretend that the author is a taxonomist and that the author is trying to identify a snake that has been found. It has to be figured out where the snake is a new species or whether it was known about and identified prior by another biologist or other scientist. The author is asked how the author of this report would go about doing this. The author will explain this and more. While the identification of current or new species can be difficult, there is plenty of documentation and procedural frameworks to follow out there when it comes to identifying new species and animals.

Species Identification

Per the information given from the assignment, the snake was found in the northern end of the state of Missouri. Indeed, the snake seems that it might bear a striking resemblance to a snake that has been seen personally by the author at the southern end of Missouri. However, the author of this report notes that the markings of the two snakes, while similar, are not the same. It would be important to first define and quantify what a species truly is when it comes to biology and taxonomy in general. As defined by the same Berkeley site reference before, a species is most precisely defined as a “group of individuals that actually or potentially interbreed in nature. In this sense, a species is the biggest gene pool possible under natural conditions” (Berkeley, 2015). The university site goes on to show pictures of four spiders that are actually quite different in terms of appearance. However, they could all theoretically interbreed. Thus, they are the same species and this species is known as Theridion Grallator. This is in much the same way that all human beings are homo sapiens and thus could interbreed together if they were to mate. However, the lines of species are not always clean-cut and easy to trace. For example, the Berkeley website talks about the carrion crow and the hooded crow. The question becomes whether the hybrids formed by those two different crows mating should be considered a new species or not or if they are part of the same general pool since they could inter-breed in the first place (Berkeley, 2015).

The primary and best way to identify whether those two snakes are related or not is to be able to dissect and analyze them as well as take a sample of their DNA. The former would indicate whether they have the same structures and such inside and the latter would indicate how closely related the two snakes are. This may or may not be possible if the two snakes are not in the custody of taxonomy or biology professionals. However, if the snakes have been identified on a prior occasion, there should be picture and documentation of whether another snake like that has been seen, where it has been seen and so forth. What is known about those snakes can be compared to what is known about the two Missouri snakes (Annenberg Learner, 2015).


Computers and DNA have made the identification and classification of animals so much easier than it was before. However, taxonomists and biologists learn new things every day and computers are only as smart as the people that build and program them. As such, there is always room for improvement and it remains to be seen what those improvements will be in the coming years, decades and generations.


Annenberg Learner. (2015). Life Science | Session 6. Retrieved 14 June 2015, from

Berkeley. (2015). Understanding Evolution. Retrieved 13 June 2015, from

Christidis, L., & Boles, W. (2007). Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. Collingwood, Vic.: CSIRO Pub.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.