Posted: May 25th, 2022

Accounting Information for Decision Making

Accounting Information for Decision Making

Corporate Confirming on Water Risk (Feb 2010) indicates that the Global Confirming Initiative (GRI) G3 Guidelines’ five water-related indications (total withdrawal volume by source, ponds considerably impacted by distributions, percentage and total amount of water recycled and used again, total water discharge by quality and destination, and identification water physiques and related habitats impacted by discharges) make the perfect beginning point for assessing and confirming water risks. Within this section, we’ll briefly discuss the relevance of all these standards (Power, 2010).

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Total water withdrawal by source

Confirming the entire amount of water withdrawn by source adds for knowledge of the general scale of possible influences and threats connected using the company’s water use. The entire volume withdrawn offers an indication from the organization’s proper size and significance as a user of water and offers to set up a baseline figure for other information relevant to efficiency and employ (Power, 2010).

The systematic effort to watch and enhance the efficient utilization of water within the company is directly associated with water consumption costs. Total water use may also point towards the degree of risk resulting from interruptions to water supplies or elevates the price of water. Clean and freshwater has become progressively scarce, and may influence production procedures that depend on the expanse of water. In regions where ponds are highly restricted, the company’s water consumption designs may further impact relations with the suppliers and stakeholders (Power, 2010).

Ponds considerably impacted by withdrawal water

Distributions from the water system can impact the atmosphere by decreasing the water table, reducing amount of water readily available for use, or else changing the ecosystem and its ability to perform its functions in a proper manner (GRI, 2006). Alterations of this nature strongly influence the standard of existence and lifestyles that can sustain in the region, including economic and social effects (Power, 2010).

Percentage and total amount of water recycled and used again

The speed of water reuse and recycling could be a way of measuring efficiency and may demonstrate the prosperity of the business in lessening total water distributions and discharges. Elevated reuse and recycling can lead to a discount and decrease in water consumption, treatment, and clearance expenses (GRI, 2006). The decrease in water consumption through reuse and recycling may also lead to local, national, or regional aims for controlling water supplies (Power, 2010).

Total water discharge by quality and destination

The total amount and excellence of water released through the company is directly associated with environmental influence and operational expenses. By consistently enhancing the standard of released water and/or decreasing volumes, the company can reduce its effect on the nearby atmosphere (GRI, 2006). Unmanaged relieve effluents having a high chemical or nutrient load (primarily nitrogen, phosphorous, or potassium) may have a significant effect on receiving waters. This, consequently, can impact the standard from the water supply open to the business and its relationship with towns along with other water customers (Power, 2010).

Discharging effluents or process water to some facility for treatment not just reduces pollution percentages, but could also lower the company’s financial expenses and the chance of regulating activity for non-compliance with environment regulation. All this improves the company’s social license to function (Power, 2010).

Total weight of waste by type and disposal method

Recent reports on waste generation figures over many years can also indicate the amount of progress the business makes toward waste reduction efforts. Additionally, it may indicate potential enhancements in process productivity and efficiency. From the financial perspective, the decrease in waste adds straight to decreased expenses for materials, functions, procedures and disposal. Details about the disposal destination disclose the extent that a company has handled the total amount between disposal choices and irregular environment impacts. For instance, land filling and recycling create various kinds of environment and residual impacts. Most waste minimization methods stress on giving priority to choices for reuse, recycling, after which recovery can be completed for additional disposal choices (Power, 2010).

Task 2: GRI of three companies

Australian Co-operative Meals Limited (Dairy Farmers- National Foods Limited took over the Dairy Farmers back in 2008)

The National Foods Limited (Antal et al., 2004; Egan and Frost, 2012) website revealed numerous claims about recent water savings. It reported that each of the Sydney-oriented plants played their roles at the Sydney Water Corporation’s ‘Every Drop Counts’ business structure and accomplished ‘outstanding results’. Putting special focus particularly towards the company’s Penrith assembly site, the organization reported that even though water usage had elevated from the records in the year 2006, the overall output percentage of water usage as put against each unit puts forward the “best practice” water efficiency of .82 L/L’ (recommending production had also elevated for the reason that period). The web site added that in general, ‘since June 2000, Penrith has reduced water use by 35 per cent’ and numerous initiatives describing this decline were outlined (for instance, setting up a water recycling system). Additionally, it had been reported that related opportunities had led to ‘one off’ expenses of $84,000 which, consequently, had led to the Penrith currently saving up to $139,000 and 30,800 KL yearly (Egan and Frost, 2012).

National Foods Limited also reported via the website that water government bodies in Queensland had specifically pointed out the company’s two production sites for the reason that the city was in need of decreasing the overall water consumption by at least 25%. Elaborating, the company reported that one of the two mentioned sites recorded decreases in water usage by 14% by the end of 2006 and provided good examples of methods to accomplish that. No detail was provided from the progress or efforts to offer the target in the other site (Brown and Fraser, 2006).

The National Foods Limited website was built with a page on their own ‘Environment Program’, recording the organisation’s environment policy. It highlighted the company’s concentrating efforts on saving water and enhancing waste water management, showing that the corporate groups had recognized and designed structures and key performance indications to attain mentioned goals. As the company needs ‘substantial volumes water to keep high values of food safety and hygiene’, they reported that their focus was simultaneously on ensuring that the stay committed to positively reducing their overall water usage as well and continue to strive to attain the best practices for water usage. These aims were attained by getting ‘water reduction targets and action plans’ (Egan and Frost, 2012).

A Dairy Farmers website was also available in March 2009 (CBSR, 2001; Egan and Frost, 2012) and revealed that the company was engaged in a program for water usage and saving and had already implemented similar programs at the Lidcombe, Booval and Wetherill Park industrial facilities. The website further asserted that in the duration of 12 months, the Co-operative had joined hands and worked on a number of water usage cases with the Sydney Water and also the NSW Environmental Protection Agency in an effort to enhance waste treatment procedures and sites at Wetherill Park (Egan and Frost, 2012).

Goodman Fielder Limited

There is limited information confirming the extent of water usage, administrative activities and usage impacts for Goodman Fielder Limited. The 2008 annual report mentioned that: ‘the Company’s manufacturing sites are participating in water efficiency management programs conducted by various State Governments. The Company intends to utilise the knowledge obtained during participation in these programs to drive water efficiency improvement across the business’ (Egan and Frost, 2012).

There have been similar claims produced in the 2007 and 2006 annual reviews. These reviews did not focus primarily on the water administrative procedures, however, the 2007 annual report did assert that the Goodman Fielder company had been nominated for being a global warming leader within the Food Industry in New Zealand and Australia based on its reaction to the Carbon Disclosure Project. The report also revealed a potential ‘2008 environment policy’ that made claims in line with the use of individual capital i.e. energy, water, re-cycleables and consumables will be utilized effectively and the quantity of waste produced is going to be reduced as much as practically possible. An internet page dedicated to ‘Goodman Fielder’s Environment Management System’ reported the group’s method of environment training programs and related data collection and confirming processes by stating that the objective of Goodman Fielder’s environment training programs would be to increase awareness [for instance, in the plant level] about environment issues and help produce the enthusiasm needed for the environment programs to be implemented effectively (Egan and Frost, 2012).

Inghams Enterprises Pty Limited

Inghams, an independently possessed Australian company, had limited disclosure on water management with no reports about its water related impacts. An internet page titled ‘our philosophy – our environment’ incorporated a duplicate stance as that of the company’s ‘environmental policy’. It mentioned the organisation’s resolve for safeguarding the atmosphere extended to the development of the environment management system that’s integral to overall management, protection against pollution, concepts of ‘reduce, re-use, recycle, recover’ (acquisition of recycled items), water, energy and material conservation and continuous environment improvement (Egan and Frost, 2012).

That web site is accompanied with reports for the company’s ‘environmental management plans’. Without particularly mentioning to water usage and consumption, it mentioned that Inghams website is needed to employ an Environment Management Plan (EMP). The EMP objectives are designed in compliance with: relevant legal structures along with other needs; identification from the environment impacts the company’s activities, items and services; and, methods for controlling activities having a possibility to impact the atmosphere, continuous environment improvement through having specified aims as well as describe the company’s organisational structure as well as monitoring responsibilities structures (Egan and Frost, 2012).

The site also reported particulars from the organisation’s method of a yearly site by site self-evaluated ‘environmental audit’. Finally, the site noted that ‘all employees should be aware of the potential environmental impacts of the actions, the needed environment standards of operation and just what factors is going to influence the website to adhere to such standards. The implementation of the policy is down to all personnel (Egan and Frost, 2012).

Compare and contrast water confirming practices

Some of the organisations are supplying progressively specific understandings of what may be referred to as the detail of the water management methods and initiatives. Generally it may be observed that current disclosure practices continue being largely composed of qualitative and descriptive claims. Some of the organisations are starting to supply some indication from the ratios of water used per unit of production (Egan and Frost, 2012; Antal et al., 2004; Brwon and Fraser, 2006; CBSR, 2001).

These reports can offer significant understanding of water efficiencies for internal management and exterior stakeholders. To sum up, there’s growing evidence that water has been known as an essential resource and organisations are making efforts to handle it more effectively. Possibly the 2005 Water Savings Orders which needed many of these organisations to build up plans for water savings were critical in driving these developments as well as in providing the technologies which have enabled detailed water related reports. Certainly, much deeper and much more detailed reports have the signs of being developed only from about the time this regulation was created. A few of the companies are not offering full disclosure still. There might be several causes of this including the fact that some of these are private companies (for example Inghams Enterprises Pty Limited and Snack Brands Australia Pty Limited) plus other companies are small local subsidiaries of huge multinationals (for example Cadbury Schweppes Pty Limited and Unilever Australasia Pty Limited) and where the domestic measures are aggregated inside the global context. Certainly, little disclosure from the detail water management initiatives within their Australian procedures is supplied on any global parent website (Egan and Frost, 2012; Antal et al., 2004; Brwon and Fraser, 2006; CBSR, 2001).

Task 3: Business Letter

Jenna A.

Good Life Farm (insert address)


Servelan (insert address)

Dear Sir,

I hope all is good and the corporate world is treating you well. Good Life Farm is looking to invest in appropriate Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) methods and practices in order to meet the environmental and social demands. We, at Good Life Farm understand the importance of CSR in the modern times and aim to incorporate it in our business strategy as a way of not only being a part of the community but also giving back favourably to it. We understand its adaption won’t be without difficulty but we understand the benefits will be far greater.

One of the major difficulties that we foresee at one level might be understood to provide conflicts in moving limitations, whether limitations of definition and positioning like a profit-making enterprise carrying out non-profit non-profit-making activities. But we aim to reap benefits of aspects like the limitations of demands that will surface among multiple stakeholders such as the enterprise stability, or ethical limitations associated with interventions, particularly educational actions and activism that will be conducted as well as the promotion of telecommuting which will save energy and gas. We also anticipate the possibility of interrelated boundary conflicts, affecting each other in addition to business decision-making and procedures. The very first group of conflicts around ambiguous limitations and deficiencies in design to ascertain the company role in CSR activities will be clouded between revenue-generation and never-for-profit activity.

For a company like ours where we feel that our finest CSR responsibility and conflict in the close associations with clients and clients is primarily controlling the demands for volunteerism and community participation asked for by clients. The aforementioned clouding relates to the 2nd group of conflicts including limitations of demand. Considerable complexity determines the character and extent of SME responsibility to the different stakeholders in accordance with the company’s very own stability and CSR ideals. The company will perhaps be particularly vulnerable when it comes to its survival tied straight to local customer demand, and also the owner is frequently a lone struggler from the various competing and sophisticated demands. An additional complication may be the clouding of personal and business associations between proprietors and stakeholders, where responsibility becomes associated with personal obligations, reciprocities, and shared visions of the better world. The 3rd group of conflicts in settling ethical problems, including interventions through education activities, seems partly stimulated by conflicting stakeholder demands.

Despite the conflicts thus far recognized, Good Life Farm recognizes that all conflicts can be effectively solved and thus implementing a good CSR policy could prove to be more advantageous in the long run. We, at Good Life Farm, hope to hear back from you with regards to the best amendments to the CSR approach aforementioned if needed and look forward to conducting a much more responsible corporate approach in the industry.

Kind Regards,

Jenna A.


Task 1:

GRI, (Global Reporting Initiative). (2006) Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. Version 3.0, Accessed on September 27, 2012 from:

Power, G. Paddling Upstream – Approaches to Corporate Water Reporting. Business and the Environment, 21. 6 (Jun 2010): 1-3.

Task 2:

Antal, A.B. And Sobczak, A. (2004), “Beyond CSR: organisational learning for global responsibility,” Journal of General Management, Vol. 30 No. 2, pp. 77-98.

Brown, J. & Fraser, M. (2006), Approaches and Perspectives in Social and Environmental Accounting: an Overview of the Conceptual Landscape, Business Strategy and the Environment Vol 15 No 2, pp. 103-117

CBSR (2001), “Government and corporate social responsibility: an overview of selected Canadian, European and international practices,” available at: (accessed July 25, 2007).

Egan, M and Frost, G. Corporate water reporting: A study of the Australian food, beverage and tobacco sector. Accessed on September 27, 2012 from:

Task 3:

Fenwick, A . Learning to practice social responsibility in small business: challenges and conflicts, Journal of Global Responsibility, 2010, vol. 1, no.1 (2010), pp. 149-169.

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