Posted: May 25th, 2022

A comprehensive and analytical conclusion

Marketing Management

This report will be a thorough analysis of a chosen marketing management problems. In this report, the approach taken will include thorough analysis of a total of five recent studies. The thematic marketing management problem studied here will be the impact that the ethical standards can have on the entire marketing management structure. The studies chosen will be studies from five different perspectives i.e. The background of the studies will be provided followed by the research issues that the papers identified, the theories used in the papers, the primary findings of the papers and the implications that they for the current marketers. The report will end with a comprehensive and analytical conclusion.

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Background of the Papers

There is a growing trend of hiring African-American graduates in the marketing sectors within the United States. In a recent study conducted by Malinowski and Berger (2010) we see that there is clearly ethic-oriented reason for this trend; the researchers conduct a thorough analysis of the students (black and white) of marketing and assert that the African-American students are far more ethical in their approach and application when compared to the white students (Malinowski and Berger, 2010).

Another study similarly focused on the various growing ethical problems that surface in running a business. The study asserts that organizations are trying to find progressively applicable strategies to consider measures that preserve and develop their ethical status, because corporate status is viewed as an intangible resource that produces an aggressive advantage for that enterprise and its global performance (Iwu-Egwuonwu, 2011; Amine et al., 2012).

In a related recent study, the researchers highlight the more powerful marketing methods that are now being used to penetrate the marketplace. This research specifically analyzed the attitudes of practicing dental surgeons’ on the overall responsibility of ethics for marketing (Verma et al., 2012). In another relatively recent and similar paper, the researchers use the closeness of two separated towns around the island of Cyprus to review how questionable items and types of offensive advertising and marketing accomplishments could be associated with amounts of religiousness, time usage and temporality. The structure of the study was such that the resulting findings were going to be then offered as experience in to the perception of ethics of two specific religious groups within the region (Gibbs and Ilkan, 2008).

Taking forward the ethical trends in advertising and marketing, Hoedemaekers (2011) in his study also addresses the function of humor in advertising and marketing. Particularly, he examines several cases of how banned TV advertisements which are intentionally circulated on the Internet use edgy or shocking humor. The writer argues that this kind of advertising produces an impact of progressiveness by questioning social conventions for what can be interpreted as suitable and acceptable in public places media discourses (Hoedemaekers, 2011).

Research Issues

Malinowski and Berger (1996) looked into undergraduates’ attitudes about hypothetical marketing moral problems. Among the ethical situations worked with included the introduction of a brand name of any nicotine products that will attract urban African-People in America. On the 3 moral aspects of attitude, cognitive, affective, and behavior, African-People in America were considerably more morally upset than whites (Malinowski and Berger, 2010). This approach was useful as it allowed the researcher to understand how the ethical standards enforced by the corporate companies would be manipulated. The problem recognized here is that, in the modern society, ethical standards and social responsibility of company takes the front seat and is an integral part of their brand image and company image. This is why the trend of hiring African-Americans in the marketing structures is becoming more obvious as companies use their ethical marketing strategies to promote their ethically sound image.

This study conducted by Amine and colleagues (2012) supports the findings of the prior study and asserts that concentration on the influence of ethics of company employees and its implications on business performance are integral for success. The goal of the study was to look for the impact of the ethical worker associations and behaviors in corporate performance in line with the mechanism of relationship marketing. Quite simply, the study aimed to answer how relationship marketing encourages the creation, maintenance and strengthening of the ethical climate within the organization (Amine et al., 2012).

The research problem and goal for the conducted by Verma and colleagues (2012) was slightly different from the prior two studies and aimed to evaluate the attitudes of practicing dental surgeon’s towards the responsibility of ethical marketing in dentistry through an online survey questionnaire method. The study however theorized similar to the prior two studies that the ethical approach to marketing would prove fruitful for a successful venture and sustenance of an important brand image (Verma et al., 2012).

The study conducted by Gibbs and Ilkan (2008) focused on the exact ways that the ethics and religious boundaries might influence marketing to multicultural towns. This was a slightly wider approach than the prior three studies; however, the researchers of the study, similar to prior studies, laid increasing importance on the ethical awareness of the target audience before choosing certain marketing strategies. Simialrly, the study conducted by Hoedemaekers (2011) took this a step further from the social market to the digital market and highlighted the need for the marketers to be aware of the social norms and ethics before penetrating their advertisements across digital public places like the popular social networks.


The primary theories brought to the forefront in the study conducted by Malinowski and Berger (2010) were the cognitive theories and behavioral change theories focusing primarily on how both the cognitive capability and personality of the whites made them different from the African-Americans in terms of applying or following ethical standards.

The research problem for the study conducted by Amine and colleagues (2012) studied ethical implementations inside a company by focusing on the theory of relationship marketing. The researchers tried to look for the impact of the ethical approach oriented worker on corporate performance in line with the tools of relationship marketing. They theorized that relationship marketing functions internally within the company by using the internal marketing structures (Amine et al., 2012).

The primaries theories highlighted in the study by Verma and colleagues (2012) focused on the role and techniques of promoting ethical perspective towards dental marketing and evaluation for rules for marketing (Verma et al., 2012). Hoedemaekers (2012) applied the theories of Freud and Lacan to understand such advertising as offering an incorrect or unethical picture on social networks and doesn’t essentially question or think about the actual Symbolic or ethical logic but, rather, fortifies it (Hoedemaekers, 2011).

Major Findings

The results asserted by Malinowski and Berger (2010) concluded that there was a higher percentage of African-Americans who were more ethics-oriented than the whites and thus were the right people to hire for an ethically-inclined company if they did not want their ethical standards to be tainted or negatively influenced. The study conducted by Verma and colleagues supported the findings of the study above and also established that employee ethics directly influence corporate performance across four sizes of relationship marketing (internal marketing) tools which we: communication, business trust, job satisfaction and business commitment. These factors made up the mediating variables amid ethics and satisfaction — for both the employees and customers. The results and findings of the study assert that creating an ethical climate within the organization supports the development of ethical behavior amongst employees in addition to ensuring that ethical marketing decisions are made. These conditions are directly involved with corporate performance. Since relationship marketing is itself an idea with strong ethical foundations (Murphy et al., 2007), it adds, with the system of internal marketing, towards the implicit and explicit institutionalization of ethics (Amine et al., 2012).

In the study conducted by Verma and colleagues (2012), the results showed that advertising was an important way of communicating with the end customers and that there was always a good reason behind the need to control the advertising and marketing strategies (Verma et al., 2012). The research theorized and signified that there was a higher amount of commonality between Islamic and Christian student Cypriots residing in adjoining routines, when it came to their religious and political stances. The results confirmed this notion as well (Gibbs and Ilkan, 2008). The relatively small amounts of data analyzed and the concentration on Cypriot students could prove to be a restriction for the generalization of the results attained in this study (Gibbs and Ilkan, 2008). However, this study does show significant results on the importance of recognizing the target audience and structuring the ethical marketing ploys in accordance to what is ethically important to the target audience.

The results for the study conducted by Hoedemaekers (2011) similarly show that the marketing campaigns and ads that border on the ethical complexities and challenge the norms of the target audience operate by creating a sense of complicity, in line with the subject’s guilt for taking pleasure in morally objectionable jokes, in addition to an optimistic attachment towards the brand image by way of the thrill launched through the humor or mockery (Hoedemaekers, 2011).


The implications from the study conducted by Malinowski and Berger (2010) for the current marketers thus include the recognition of the different marketing moral problems that can arise if and when the right people are not hired. Hence, the problem recognized here is hiring the right and appropriate people. The right people for the job, as recognized in this study, are thus those who have strong ethical inclinations on a personal level. This will ensure that they will apply ethical standards across all stages of work as well (Malinowski and Berger, 2010).

The implications for marketers from the study conducted by Amine and colleagues (2012) prove that the ethical systems behave as mediators within the relationship between ethics and company performance. Also, internal communication facilitates the distribution of ethical values and recognizes the foundation for the achievement of business trust and business; hence those companies who are facing ethical dilemmas is marketing can use this study as a template (Van Der Wiele, 2002; Amine et al., 2012s).

The important implications from the study conducted by Verma and colleagues (2012) for marketers from analyzing this study include the recognition of the perspective that marketing is really a two pronged sword. It is a vital tool in present day competitive market, but must be used sensibly and simultaneously (Becker and Kaldenberg, 1992; Verma et al., 2012).

The implications of the study conducted by Gibbs and Ilkan (2008) for marketers include the fact that the outcomes raise certain concerns for marketing distribution and division as well as utilization of image. For example, positive and forward-searching images would stimulate the majority of the group no express their degree of belief. This paper identifies parallels as well as ontological variations which could also significantly inform global marketing campaigns (Gibbs and Ilkan, 2008). The implications aforementioned were also verified by the study conducted by Hoedemaekers (2011) but for the digital structure of marketing and advertising.


In conclusion, all of the studies chosen above thus provide the background for the importance of ethics in marketing in the spheres ranging from the hiring of ethically-inclined employees to ethics-oriented marketing tools as the ethical exploitation of advertising/marketing strategies to penetrate the competitive global market. Furthermore, all of the studies above highlight one primary and similar research issue which is related to marketing management problems: hiring the right employee for the right customer. All studies assert that 1) the target audience is aptly recognized by the modern companies and they need to hire the right people for the job; and/or, 2) contrarily, the right people are hired but the right target audience needs to be recognized before designing ethically sound marketing strategies. All the results assert that finding the ethical balance in marketing is integral for the corporate companies today and the implications highlighted above all point towards how the chosen studies can help modern marketers attain a high ethical standard and strategy.


Study 1:

Malinowski, C. And Berger, K. (2010). Differences in Marketing Ethics Attitudes Between Black and White Undergraduates. Competition Forum, 8. 2: 227-233.

Study 2:

Amine, M.A., Chakor, A. And Alaoui, M.A. (2012). Ethics, Relationship Marketing and Corporate Performance: Theoretical Analysis through the Mediating Variables. International Business Research, 5. 8: 68-84.

Study 3:

Verma, M., Saini, A.K. And Nawal, R.R. (2011). Role of Ethics in Dental Marketing: An Assessment of Opinions of Practicing Dental Surgeons in India. Journal of Management Research, 11. 3: 159-167.

Study 4:

Gibbs, P. And Ilkan, M. (2008). The ethics of marketing in Islamic and Christian communities: Insights for global marketing. Cross Cultural Management, 15. 2: 162-175.

Study 5:

Hoedemaekers, C. (2011). Viral marketing and imaginary ethics, or the joke that goes too far. Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society, 16. 2: 162-178.

Full List of References

Amine, M.A., Chakor, A. And Alaoui, M.A. (2012). Ethics, Relationship Marketing and Corporate Performance: Theoretical Analysis through the Mediating Variables. International Business Research, 5. 8: 68-84.

Becker, B.W. And Kaldenberg, D.O. (1992), Advertising and the Dental Profession: Retrospective and Prospective, Journal of Alabama Dental Association, 76(3): 20-3, 26-9.

Freud, S. (1905, 1960) Jokes and their relation to the unconscious. Standard Edition, 8. London: Hogarth Press.

Gibbs, P. And Ilkan, M. (2008). The ethics of marketing in Islamic and Christian communities: Insights for global marketing. Cross Cultural Management, 15. 2: 162-175.

Harker, M.J., & Egan, J. (2006). The past, present and future of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 22(1), 215-242.

Hoedemaekers, C. (2011). Viral marketing and imaginary ethics, or the joke that goes too far. Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society, 16. 2: 162-178.

Iwu-Egwuonwu, R.C. (2011). Corporate Reputation & Firm Perfonnance: Empirical Literature Evidence. Intemational Joumal of Business and Management, 6(4), 197-206.

Lacan, J. (1986, 1992) Seminar VII: The Ethics of Psychoanalysis 1959-1960 . In: J.-A. Miller (ed.) Translated by D. Porter, New York: Norton.

Levy, P. (2009). Growing numbers, more opportunity to spend: Make the most out of multicultural marketing segments. Marketing news, April 30th, 22-24.

Malinowski, C. And Berger, K. (2010). Differences in Marketing Ethics Attitudes Between Black and White Undergraduates. Competition Forum, 8. 2: 227-233.

Malinowski, C., & Berger, K. (1996). Undergraduate student attitudes about hypothetical marketing moral dilemmas. Journal of Business Ethics, 15, 525-535.

Murphy, P.E., Laczniak, G.R., & Wood, G. (2007). An ethical basis for relationship marketing: A virtue ethics perspective. European Journal of Marketing, 41(1/2), 37-57.

Takala, T., & Uusitalo, O. (1996). An alternative view of relationship marketing: A framework for ethical analysis. European Journal of Marketing, 30(2), 45- 60.

Tsalikis, J., & Nwachukwu, O. (1988). Cross-cultural business ethics: Ethical beliefs difference between Blacks and Whites. Journal of Business Ethics, 7, 745-754.

Van Der Wiele, T., Boselie, P., & Hesselink, M. (2002). Empirical evidence for the relationship between customer satisfaction and business performance. Managing Service Quality, 12(3), 184-193.

Verma, M., Saini, A.K. And Nawal, R.R. (2011). Role of Ethics in Dental Marketing: An Assessment of Opinions of Practicing Dental Surgeons in India. Journal of Management Research, 11. 3: 159-167.

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